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Showing posts with label myrosinase. Show all posts
Showing posts with label myrosinase. Show all posts

Thursday, 13 August 2015

Sulforaphane Research in Japan – Cognitive Deficits and Schizophrenia






I recently received some papers about Sulforaphane from a reader of this blog and also comments from people with schizophrenia looking for therapies

Sulforaphane is already a valued part of my autism Polypill for Monty, aged 12 with ASD.  Just google "Sulforaphane Epiphany", or use the site index tab on this blog.

Sulforaphane has been patented for various purposes by John Hopkins, however even after twenty years they have not brought to market a standardized product.  The Sulforaphane (SFN) used in their research is made in the lab and then has to be kept deep frozen.

Sulforaphane is not a stable substance and so you are wasting your money buying most supplements.  Even most types of broccoli powder, which should be a precursor to Sulforaphane (SFN), were shown to be ineffective in independent lab tests.

In Japan it seems they are far more advanced, they already have a standardized SFN-glucosinolate tablets, no mention of the need to keep them frozen.


Japanese Sulforaphane (SFN) research

What is interesting in the Japanese research into cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is that SFN shows has both prophylactic and therapeutic effects.  This suggests that even if there is no immediate benefit from taking SFN in some people, there may be some long term preventative/protective benefits.




Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Keap1 is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential for the regulation of Nrf2 activity. Here, we found that pretreatment with SFN attenuated cognitive deficits, the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells, and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Furthermore, PCP-induced cognitive deficits were improved by the subsequent subchronic administration of SFN. Interestingly, the dietary intake of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate precursor of SFN) during the juvenile and adolescence prevented the onset of PCP-induced cognitive deficits as well as the increase in 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the decrease in PV-positive cells in the brain at adulthood. Moreover, the NRF2 gene and the KEAP1 gene had an epistatic effect on cognitive impairment (e.g., working memory and processing speed) in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that SFN may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Therefore, the dietary intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts during the juvenile and adolescence may prevent the onset of psychosis at adulthood.

  


After giving written informed consent, participants received 3 tablets of SFN prepared by Kagome Co., Ltd. (Nagoya, Japan), totaling 30 mg of SFN-glucosinolate per day, for 8 weeks. It is known that SFN-glucosinolate is metabolized to SFN in the body.

Objective

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairment. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Sulforaphane (SFN) extracted from broccoli sprout is an agent with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of SFN on cognitive impairment in medicated patients with schizophrenia.

Methods

We recruited a total of 10 outpatients with schizophrenia, all of whom gave informed consent. Participants took 3 tablets of SFN, consisting of 30 mg of SFN-glucosinolate per day, for 8 weeks. Clinical symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and cognitive function using the Japanese version of CogState battery were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at week 8.

Results

A total of 7 patients completed the trial. The mean score in the Accuracy component of the One Card Learning Task increased significantly after the trial. However, we detected no other significant changes in participants.

Conclusion

This result suggests that SFN has the potential to improve cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia.

   
I do get comments from people with schizophrenia on this blog and there is clearly a big overlap between some schizophrenia and some autism.  More and more therapies are being shown to be effective in both; it seems to be the SFN is one of those therapies.

What would be nice would be a commercially available, standardized product that genuinely could be relied upon to produce SFN in the body.  The Japanese appear to have already mastered this.  No need for Johns Hopkins patents.

For the time being, I am happily using my Supersprouts broccoli sprout powder which does indeed seem to produce SFN.  If one day they stop making it, I have already found that you would just need to add heat stable myrosinase (in the form of daikon radish root) to otherwise ineffective broccoli sprout powder.

For those of you who tried other products claiming to contain/produce SFN, and found them ineffective, you do not know whether the child does not respond to SFN, or your product produced none.

  
Conclusion

SFN really does look worth a try, or perhaps even a second try for those who tried one of those “false” supplements.  Price does not always indicate quality.


One day I hope that the Japanese firm Kagome, chooses to sell its SFN tablets worldwide and not just their tomato ketchups and juices.  




Thursday, 4 December 2014

PolyPill Reformulated

One reader of this blog, who found that 2.5ml of the Australian broccoli sprout powder, I suggested in an earlier post, works wonders for her son (40 minutes after the first dose), asked if I was going to include it in my Polypill.

Then yesterday Monty’s assistant at school asked to take some powder to try on another small child with ASD.  Today she tells me that the same positive result was repeated, in half an hour.

So I decided it is time to update the PolyPill.

I did tell the researcher, I was in touch with at John’s Hopkins, that it appears you can reliably make Sulforaphane at home, without your own laboratory and a deep freezer.  I think they somehow prefer things to be complicated and hard to access.

It does amaze me how people are not adopting, even super-safe, ideas that might help their child.  Many tens of thousands of parents affected by ASD must have read the stories in their newspapers about Broccoli (Sulforaphane) and autism.  How come almost nobody has made it work at home? Or at least, that is what it seems like if you look on Google.  People write about having read about it.  They usually then say, “ah well, Johns Hopkins say it does not work at home and you need a standardized dose”.

Sometimes you need to think for yourself.

Behind all this is the belief that “doctor” always knows best.  Most people are terrified of “experimenting” on their child.  Those that actually do this, are nearly exclusively in the US, with their DAN doctors.  They seem to give up after a year or two and accept whatever is left of the autism.

By the time the child is older and the parents are less worried about them trying drugs, they have given up and accepted the “inevitable”.


Reader feedback

When I started this blog, I rather optimistically expected to join forces with many other motivated, scientifically knowledgeable, parents.

This blog is visited 10,000 times a month, but I can count on two hands the number of people that have acted on it and shared their experience on/off line.  There have been some really great outcomes, which is wonderful for those concerned. (great outcomes = big improvements)

Without wanting to be biblical, but having recently sat through the film, Pulp Fiction, with Monty’s older brother, this does sum things up nicely:-

"Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you”

It just might take you a lot more work than you expected.


PolyPill

Regular readers will have noticed that the Polypill is my formulation for treating classic early-onset autism.  It is a combination of the clever ideas of others, some developed a little further, and some ideas of my own, based on the literature.

Many drugs and supplements have some impact on autism.  Some make it better, some make it worse, but most have no effect whatsoever.

Drugs and supplements can have side effects and they can react with each other.  So it is wise to use only those with a major impact.


Broccoli Sprout Powder

The most surprising ingredient I have tested is freeze dried broccoli powder from Australia.  Who would have thought that 2.5ml of this green powder would have an effect on autism.  But it does, and without any of the extra myrosinase, that I had expected to need. Johns Hopkin’s version is a deep frozen product, made after reacting broccoli sprouts with daikon radish sprouts in the laboratory.

All of people working with Monty, aged 11 with ASD, have noticed the difference, so it really is not a placebo effect


Incremental changes

·        Much more unprompted speech (> 50% increase)

·    He started to talk to animals and continues to do
·     He opened the car window to say hello and good bye to someone he recognized passing by – totally unheard of behavior

·        Increased awareness and presence of his surroundings

·        Now, while the TV news is on, Monty is reading aloud the news ticker at the bottom of the screen.  Before, the TV news was just “wallpaper”, unless there were some explosions  or other excitement.

·        Improved mood and mild euphoria

·        The broccoli powder still produces euphoria
·        In other people it may just improve mood

The good news is that Broccoli really is more of a food than a drug and so should not be harmful; although all kinds of things can interact in strange ways.  For example, vitamin C with cinnamon is not a good idea.


Method of action

As usual, I do like to know how and why things work.

The broccoli sprouts contain many substances, at least two of which might be involved:-

1.     Indole-3-carbinol (I3C).  I3C has some extremely interesting properties for both cancer and autism.  I3C up-regulates a protein called PTEN, encoded by the PTEN gene.  PTEN is an “autism gene”.

2.     Sulforaphane (SFN) is the chemical that John’s Hopkins think is the “active” ingredient of broccoli.

SFN is an activator of Nrf2, a “redox switch”.  This release of Nrf2 has a known on/off effect on about 300 genes involved in the response to oxidative stress.

SFN is also an HDI, or an inhibitor of HDAC (Histone Deacetylase)

HDIs have a long history of use in psychiatry and neurology as mood stabilizers and anti-epileptics.

Interestingly, we learn from Wikipedia:- 

“To carry out gene expression, a cell must control the coiling and uncoiling of DNA around histones. This is accomplished with the assistance of histone acetyl transferases (HAT), which acetylate the lysine residues in core histones leading to a less compact and more transcriptionally active chromatin, and, on the converse, the actions of histone deacetylases (HDAC), which remove the acetyl groups from the lysine residues leading to the formation of a condensed and transcriptionally silenced chromatin. Reversible modification of the terminal tails of core histones constitutes the major epigenetic mechanism for remodeling higher-order chromatin structure and controlling gene expression. HDAC inhibitors (HDI) block this action and can result in hyperacetylation of histones, thereby affecting gene expression.

So it looks like those little broccoli sprouts might be initiating some very clever science, perhaps even some primitive gene therapy.













Conclusion

There are still plenty more ideas waiting to test, so there will no doubt be more updated versions of the PolyPill in future.

It does look like there may be more food ingredients and not just drugs, which is not what I expected.










Thursday, 6 November 2014

Sulforaphane, Epithiospecifier Proteins (ESP) or just Sulforadex for Autism




  
One reader of the last post on Sulforaphane raised the issue of whether she should cook her broccoli sprouts, to optimize her autism therapy.

This seemed a bit strange, since even the researchers at Johns Hopkins are eating their sprouts raw.  She does have a valid point.  It seems that while sprouts have large amounts of glucoraphanin and the required enzyme myrosinase, they also have something called Epithiospecifier Protein (ESP).  If there is much ESP present, instead of Sulforaphane you get a very similar compound called Sulforaphane Nitrile.  You can see that the “S” has been replaced by an “N”.




All is not lost, for those of you with sprouts growing in the kitchen.
Further research showed that the concentration of ESP in the sprouts peaks on the second day and that by day 5 has dropped dramatically.





It was also showed that raising the temperature of the sprouts to 60 degrees Celsius deactivated the ESP.  Heating Broccoli florets much beyond this then reduced the Sulforaphane produced, but not heating the sprouts.


Abstract
Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate from broccoli, is one of the most potent food-derived anticarcinogens. This compound is not present in the intact vegetable, rather it is formed from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by the action of myrosinase, a thioglucosidase enzyme, when broccoli tissue is crushed or chewed. However, a number of studies have demonstrated that sulforaphane yield from glucoraphanin is low, and that a non-bioactive nitrile analog, sulforaphane nitrile, is the primary hydrolysis product when plant tissue is crushed at room temperature. Recent evidence suggests that in Arabidopsis, nitrile formation from glucosinolates is controlled by a heat-sensitive protein, epithiospecifier protein (ESP), a non-catalytic cofactor of myrosinase. Our objectives were to examine the effects of heating broccoli florets and sprouts on sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile formation, to determine if broccoli contains ESP activity, then to correlate heat-dependent changes in ESP activity, sulforaphane content and bioactivity, as measured by induction of the phase II detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR) in cell culture. Heating fresh broccoli florets or broccoli sprouts to 60 degrees C prior to homogenization simultaneously increased sulforaphane formation and decreased sulforaphane nitrile formation. A significant loss of ESP activity paralleled the decrease in sulforaphane nitrile formation. Heating to 70 degrees C and above decreased the formation of both products in broccoli florets, but not in broccoli sprouts. The induction of QR in cultured mouse hepatoma Hepa lclc7 cells paralleled increases in sulforaphane formation.



So it would seem that if you want to eat the sprouts raw, you need to wait for five days before consuming them.  Not good to eat them when two days old.

If you cook them, you do risk affecting the myrosinase and then you might need to add back some more from another source, just as Nicole mentioned in her comment.  But some research implies the sprouts are heat stable.

This all starts to get rather complicated.

Personally I decided to buy freeze dried broccoli sprout powder from Australia.  They claim to measure for ESP, and there is very little.  Their myrosinase has not been deactivated in processing.

If true, their product is near ideal.  Is say near ideal, because one spoonful also has the taste of a plateful of broccoli.

Mine has now arrived and so I will serve one level teaspoonful a day.

Other research actually suggested that Daikon radish may be event better than broccoli.  Johns Hopkins chose to patent the broccoli.  In their research compound, they reacted broccoli sprouts with daikon radish sprouts to make a standardized Sulforaphane which is then freeze dried and kept frozen.

RADISH SPROUTS VERSUS BROCCOLI SPROUTS: A COMPARISON OF ANTI-CANCER POTENTIAL BASED ON GLUCOSINOLATE BREAKDOWN PRODUCTS





Daikon powder is readily available and is a potent source of heat stable myrosinase.

So I will seek to get the optimal output from my Australian sprout powder by adding a dash of Daikon powder.


A better way?  Sulforadex

This kitchen chemistry may all seem rather haphazard and indeed it is.

Rather than try and make 8 mg of Sulforaphane in your kitchen, would it not be better to buy 8 mg of standardized heat stable Sulforaphane in the pharmacy?

Sulforadex is potentially exactly that; it is an analog of Sulforaphane.  Trials have started in humans and at very much higher doses to check for toxicity and side effects.

Here is a link to the Phase 1 trial:-


The only questions I have are:- is anyone 100% certain that Sulforaphane is the only beneficial compound produced by eating broccoli?  Is Sulforaphane the only compound present in Johns Hopkin’s frozen capsules?  When they react their broccoli sprouts with daikon sprouts in the lab, there are other compounds produced.

Monty, aged 11 with ASD, is by now remarkably accommodating when it comes to downing unappetizing potions.  NAC tastes pretty bad, unless you use the more expensive effervescent variety.  But this pales in comparison to what a spoonful of broccoli sprout powder tastes like (and looks like).

They also make this powder in capsule form, for those who can swallow them. 

The more appetising anti-oxidant would be a bar of high flavanol dark chocolate, as we discovered in the previous post.  As well as tasting better, it may quite possibly be just as effective.







Sunday, 26 October 2014

How to make Sulforaphane (Broccoli) at home

I hope he took his Sulforaphane


This month thousands of runners braved thick smog at the Beijing marathon, with some even donning masks as air pollution soared to 16 times the maximum recommended level.

Johns Hopkins have been trialing their Sulforaphane in China as a therapy to counter the health effects of air pollution.

It was proposed that the potent anti-oxidant and chemoprotective protective properties of Sulforaphane would be a cheap way to protect the health of people living in highly polluted environments.


 or the actual study:-



Abstract

Broccoli sprouts are a convenient and rich source of the glucosinolate, glucoraphanin, which can generate the chemopreventive agent, sulforaphane, an inducer of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and other cytoprotective enzymes. A broccoli sprout–derived beverage providing daily doses of 600 mmol glucoraphanin and 40 mmol sulforaphane was evaluated for magnitude and duration of pharmacodynamics action in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Two hundred and ninety-one study participants were recruited from the rural He-He Township, Qidong, in the Yangtze River delta region of China, an area characterized by exposures to substantial levels of airborne pollutants. Exposure to air pollution has been associated with lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. Urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of the pollutants, benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde, were measured before and during the intervention using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid and sustained, statistically
significant (P _ 0.01) increases in the levels of excretion of the glutathione-derived conjugates of benzene (61%), acrolein (23%), but not crotonaldehyde, were found in those receiving broccoli sprout beverage compared with placebo. Excretion of the benzene-derived mercapturic acid was higher in participants who were GSTT1-positive than in the null genotype, irrespective of study arm assignment.
Measures of sulforaphane metabolites in urine indicated that bioavailability did not decline over the 12-week daily dosing period. Thus, intervention with broccoli sprouts enhances the detoxication of some airborne pollutants and may provide a frugal means to attenuate their associated long-term health risks.

Now this blog is not about pollution, but you might be interested to know that such pollution not only increases cancer risk (plus respiratory diseases, of course) but also increases the incidence of autism.
  



How to make Sulforaphane at Home

Hopefully you can now see the potential benefits of Sulforaphane.  As I said in the earlier post, twenty years has passed since Johns Hopkins discovered Sulforaphane and there have been numerous studies and experiments done.  What follows is just my synthesis and conclusions of that work.


1.     Eating Broccoli

Broccoli does contain glucosinolate and the required enzyme myrosinase.  If you eat copious amount of raw broccoli or very lightly cooked (steaming for 2 minutes) you will produce Sulforaphane in your body.  The amount required would be literally pounds/kilos each and every day, to come close the therapeutic doses.

Frozen broccoli has no active myrosinase and over-cooked broccoli has no myrosinase.

Clever tricks developed to get round this include:-

·        Eating a small piece of raw broccoli (to provide  myrosinase) with your cooked broccoli
 ·        Adding a tiny amount of daikon radish to frozen broccoli.  This is really a great idea, since only 0.25% Daikon is needed, you get 99.75% broccoli and will never even notice or taste the daikon.  The idea is that this should be done by the food processor when they freeze the broccoli, you would not do anything at home.
  
Abstract
Frozen broccoli can provide a cheaper product, with a longer shelf life and less preparation time than fresh broccoli. We previously showed that several commercially available frozen broccoli products do not retain the ability to generate the cancer-preventative agent sulforaphane. We hypothesized that this was because the necessary hydrolyzing enzyme myrosinase was destroyed during blanching, as part of the processing that frozen broccoli undergoes. This study was carried out to determine a way to overcome loss of hydrolyzing activity. Industrial blanching usually aims to inactivate peroxidase, although lipoxygenase plays a greater role in product degradation during frozen storage of broccoli. Blanching at 86 °C or higher inactivated peroxidase, lipoxygenase, and myrosinase. Blanching at 76 °C inactivated 92% of lipoxygenase activity, whereas there was only an 18% loss in myrosinase-dependent sulforaphane formation. We considered that thawing frozen broccoli might disrupt membrane integrity, allowing myrosinase and glucoraphanin to come into contact. Thawing frozen broccoli for 9 h did not support sulforaphane formation unless an exogenous source of myrosinase was added. Thermal stability studies showed that broccoli root, as a source of myrosinase, was not more heat stable than broccoli floret. Daikon radish root supported some sulforaphane formation even when heated at 125 °C for 10 min, a time and temperature comparable to or greater than microwave cooking. Daikon radish (0.25%) added to frozen broccoli that was then allowed to thaw supported sulforaphane formation without any visual alteration to that of untreated broccoli.


2.     Eating Broccoli Sprouts

It was shown that broccoli seeds and broccoli sprouts (5 day old broccoli) contain highly concentrated amounts of glucosinolate and the required enzyme myrosinase.  It is reported to be about 20 times higher in sprouts than full grown broccoli.

Broccoli sprouts are eaten uncooked and so no myrosinase is lost in food preparation.

Following all the Johns Hopkins research and commercialization, in many parts of the world you can readily buy fresh broccoli sprouts, many sold by companies licensed by the company run by the son of the original researcher at John Hopkins.

It was reported that that original lead researcher tries to regularly eat 4oz (120g) a week of broccoli sprouts, which is not so much.

However if you want to achieve the therapeutic doses in the clinical trials this will not be enough.

Trials used between 50 and 150 micromoles of Sulforaphane.

Rather unhelpfully they do not equate this to a measure accessible to lay people. 

If you recall your high school chemistry just go to Wikipedia and look up Sulforaphane:

C6H11NOS2
177.29 g/mol

To convert to grams you just multiply by 177.29.

So the trials used dosages between 8.8 mg and 26.6 mg of sulforaphane.

Most of these trials are in adults and most people reading this blog are interested in treating children, so let’s work with the figure of 8mg of sulforaphane.




Abstract

Broccoli consumption may reduce the risk of various cancers and many broccoli supplements are now available. The bioavailability and excretion of the mercapturic acid pathway metabolites isothiocyanates after human consumption of broccoli supplements has not been tested. Two important isothiocyanates from broccoli are sulforaphane and erucin. We employed a cross-over study design in which 12 subjects consumed 40 grams of fresh broccoli sprouts followed by a 1 month washout period and then the same 12 subjects consumed 6 pills of a broccoli supplement. As negative controls for isothiocyanate consumption four additional subjects consumed alfalfa sprouts during the first phase and placebo pills during the second. Blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours during each phase and analyzed for sulforaphane and erucin metabolites using LC-MS/MS. The bioavailability of sulforaphane and erucin is dramatically lower when subjects consume broccoli supplements compared to fresh broccoli sprouts. The peaks in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion were also delayed when subjects consumed the broccoli supplement. GSTP1 polymorphisms did not affect the metabolism or excretion of sulforaphane or erucin. Sulforaphane and erucin are able to interconvert in vivo and this interconversion is consistent within each subject but variable between subjects. This study confirms that consumption of broccoli supplements devoid of myrosinase activity does not produce equivalent plasma concentrations of the bioactive isothiocyanate metabolites compared to broccoli sprouts. This has implications for people who consume the recommended serving size (1 pill) of a broccoli supplement and believe they are getting equivalent doses of isothiocyanates.



Following consumption of 40 g of alfalfa sprouts or 6 placebo pills, no SFN or ERN metabolites were detected in plasma or urine from the four subjects in the control group (Figure 1). In contrast subjects who consumed 40 g of broccoli sprouts (150 and 71 μmoles glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, respectively) or 6 supplement pills (121 and 40 μmoles glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, respectively) had considerable amounts of SFN and ERN metabolites in both plasma and urine.







In 12 hours about 145 micromols of SFN and ERN were excreted in urine.  From the chart it looks likes SFN:ERN is about 2:1.  So assume about 95 micromols of SFN (sulforaphane).

In the following study using frozen sulforaphane made at Johns Hopkins about 85 micromols were excreted in 12 hours 








In the Johns Hopkins trial above the dosage was 800 μmol of glucoraphanin in GRR (the blue lines above) and 150 μmol of sulforaphane in SFR beverages (green lines above). The drugs were mixed with mango juice and water.

We compare the green line with the earlier study and see that 40 g of sprouts is a similar dose to 150 μmol of Johns Hopkins sulforaphane.

Now I did ask Johns Hopkins how many grams of broccoli sprouts yields 50 μmol of Johns Hopkins sulforaphane.  They did reply and said that the level varies among sprouts and so it is impossible to say.

We have seen in this blog, to date, that while nothing is 100% certain in autism or autism therapies, once you have exceeded a certain level of probability, it is worth giving things a try.  If you wait for 100% certainty, you will never move.

So while you will never know exactly how much sulforaphane is in your sprouts, it does look like a fair estimate is 3.8 μmol /g.

So if you want 50 μmol, then you would need to eat about 13g of sprouts a day.

To achieve the adult dose of 150  μmol you would need to eat 40g of sprouts a day.

As a double check compare this to what the original lead researcher is reporting to be taking, for preventative therapy.  He takes 4 oz. a week.  This is 113.4g or 16g a day.

This dose appears not to have harmed him, and he is now 91 years old!


Paul Talalay

Paul Talalay was born in Germany , but emigrated to England with his family in 1933, shortly after the Nazi Party came to power. He was educated at Bedford School and, in 1940, he travelled to the United States to enter Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he majored in biology

Talalay's career has been devoted to cancer research and the achievement of early protection against cell damage. A pioneer in the field of chemoprotective research strategies, Talalay and his colleagues devised simple cell culture methods for detecting phytochemicals which appear to boost enzymes that detoxify carcinogens in the body. This work led to the isolation of sulforaphane, found in broccoli, as a potent inducer of detoxifying phase two enzymes. These findings, published in 1992,  attracted worldwide attention as a major breakthrough in understanding the potential link between cruciferous vegetable consumption and reduced cancer risk.

Since I have no signs of any other Germans appearing on my Dean’s List and there are already plenty of Americans, he goes down as a German.  Nikola Tesla had the same problem, with four countries claiming him as their own (USA, Austria, Croatia and Serbia).

 
3.     Mixing Daikin Powder with Broccoli Powder

Many people do not like eating broccoli.  I do suggest you try eating it raw; it really is not bad at all, and much better than the soggy, over cooked, variety.

For those preferring powders and pills, the third method involves mixing freeze dried Daikin Radish with freeze dried broccoli.

It turns out that while the myrosinase in broccoli is not heat or cold stable, the daikon radish root is a good source of heat stable myrosinase.  This radish is commonly used in Japan and is available cheaply in freeze dried form.

This is the powder that was proposed to be added to Frozen broccoli, so that it would be a source of sulforaphane.

Broccoli powder is produced in large volumes for the supplement industry, which package it in capsules and sell it on to you.

Why nobody thought of including active myrosinase from daikon radish is beyond me.  It is not expensive.

There appears to be one broccoli supplement that does actually do what it says on the label and produce some  sulforaphane.  Perhaps it includes some Daikin powder ?  It was tested in the US.

That supplement is made in Australia.  It is not cheap.

It is claimed that:-

A 1-gram serve of EnduraCell powder is equivalent to 12 grams of fresh sprouts (with their sulforaphane inhibitors deactivated) and contains 30mg of Glucoraphanin that yields 12 mg Sulforaphane.

Research has shown that generally broccoli supplements do not perform, perhaps this one is different?


4.     Combining Broccoli Sprouts with Broccoli Powder

Since broccoli sprouts, like daikin radish, contains copious amounts of myrosinase, you could also combine fresh broccoli sprouts with broccoli powder.  This has actually been studied in research projects and does work.

Abstract
Sulforaphane (SF) is a chemopreventive isothiocyanate (ITC) derived from the myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucoraphanin, a thioglucoside present in broccoli. Broccoli supplements often contain glucoraphanin but lack myrosinase, putting in question their ability to provide dietary SF. This study compared the relative absorption of SF from air-dried broccoli sprouts rich in myrosinase and a glucoraphanin-rich broccoli powder lacking myrosinase, individually and in combination. Subjects (n=4) each consumed 4 meals consisting of dry cereal and yogurt with 2 g sprouts, 2 g powder, both, or neither. Blood and urine were analyzed for SF metabolites. The 24 h urinary SF recovery was 74%, 49%, and 19% of the dose ingested from broccoli sprouts, combination, and broccoli powder meals, respectively. Urinary and plasma ITC appearance was delayed from the broccoli powder compared to the sprouts and combination. A liver function panel indicated no toxicity from any treatment at 24 h. These data indicate a delayed appearance in plasma and urine of SF from the broccoli powder relative to SF from myrosinase-rich sprouts. Combining broccoli sprouts with the broccoli powder enhanced SF absorption from broccoli powder, offering the potential for development of foods that modify the health impact of broccoli products.



Conclusion

More good news is that when you make sulforaphane in the above fashion, you also make some other interesting substances; one of these is Indole-3-carbinol (I3C).  I3C itself has some extremely interesting properties for both cancer and autism.  I3C up-regulates a protein called PTEN, encoded by the PTEN gene.  PTEN is dysfunctional in autism and, in general terms, may need to be up-regulated.  Indole-3-carbinol is one of the few, safe, known, ways to up-regulate PTEN.  PTEN is also a tumor suppressor gene and so in people with some cancers, up-regulating PTEN will slow cancer progression.

Anyway, it really does look like broccoli may be good for cancer and autism.


Bon Appetit!