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Showing posts with label ivermectin. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ivermectin. Show all posts

Saturday, 24 June 2017

Modulating Wnt Signaling in Autism and Cancer








In earlier posts I have covered various signaling pathways such as Wnt, mTOR and the unusually sounding Hedgehog.
You can go into huge detail if you want to understand these pathways, or just take a more superficial view. In most cases, things only start to go wrong if you are hypo/hyper (too little/too much) in these pathways.
We saw with mTOR that most people with autism are likely to have too much activity and so might benefit from mTOR inhibition, but a minority will have the opposite status and stand to benefit from more mTOR activity.
When it comes to Wnt signaling the research suggests the same situation. Wnt signaling is likely to be aberrant, but both extremes exist.

Given the large volume of genetic data, analyzing each gene on its own is not a feasible approach and will take years to complete, let alone attempt to use the information to develop novel therapeutics. To make sense of independent genomic data, one approach is to determine whether multiple risk genes function in common signaling pathways that identify signaling “hubs” where risk genes converge. This approach has led to multiple pathways being implicated, such as synaptic signaling, chromatin remodeling, alternative splicing, and protein translation, among many others. In this review, we analyze recent and historical evidence indicating that multiple risk genes, including genes denoted as high-confidence and likely causal, are part of the Wingless (Wnt signaling) pathway. In the brain, Wnt signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays an instrumental role in developing neural circuits and adult brain function.
While the human genetic data is an important supporting factor, it is not the only one. There are a number of mouse genetic knockout (KO) models targeting Wnt signaling molecules, describing molecular, cellular, electrophysiological, and behavioral deficits that are consistent with ASD and ID. Furthermore, the genes involved in Wnt signaling are of significant clinical interest because there are a variety of approved drugs that either inhibit or stimulate this pathway.
There are many drugs developed and tested as modulators of Wnt signaling in the cancer field that could potentially be repurposed for developmental cognitive disorders. In cases where a reduction in Wnt signaling is thought to underlie the pathology of the disorder, usage of compounds that elevated canonical Wnt signaling could be applied. An example of this is GSK-3β inhibitors that have failed in cancer trials but may be effective for ASDs and ID (e.g., Tideglusig, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02586935). In cases where elevated Wnt signaling is thought to contribute to disease pathology, there are many potential options to inhibit canonical Wnt signaling using chemicals (Fig. 1) that inhibit the interaction between β-catenin and its targets (e.g., inhibiting β-catenin interaction with the TCF factors), disheveled inhibitors (through targeting of the PDZ domain which generally inhibit the Frizzled–PDZ interaction), and tankyrase inhibitors (e.g., XAV939, which induces the stabilization of axin by inhibiting the poly (ADP)-ribosylating enzymes tankyrase 1 and tankyrase 2)

In recent years, strong autism ties have cropped up for one group of genes in particular: those that make up a well-known signaling pathway called WNT, which also has strong links to cancer. This pathway is especially compelling because some people with autism carry mutations in various members of it, including one of its central players: beta-catenin1. What’s more, studies from the past year indicate that several of the strongest autism candidate genes, including CHD8 and PTEN, interact with this pathway.
“There might be a particular subgroup of genes associated with autism that could all be feeding into or be regulating this pathway,” says Albert Basson, reader in developmental and stem cell biology at King’s College London, who studies CHD8 and WNT. “That clearly has emerged as a relatively major theme over the last few years.”

The connection between cancer and some autism is over-activated pro-growth signaling pathways. Many signaling pathways have growth at one extreme and cell death at the other. In cancer you actually want cell death to suppress tumor growth; in much autism there is also too much growth.  
Many cancers are associated with elevated signaling of mTOR, Wnt and indeed Hedgehog.  These are targets for cancer drug therapy and so there is already a great deal known.
A complication is that in a developmental neurological condition, like autism, it also matters when these signaling pathways were/are disturbed. For example Wnt signaling is known to play a role in dendritic spines and synaptic pruning, some of this is an ongoing process but other parts are competed at an early age, so it would matter when you intervene to modulate these pathways.
Historically cancer therapies involve potent drugs, often with potent side effects, however in recent years there has been growing awareness that some safe existing drugs can have equally potent anti-cancer effects. Many of these drugs are anti-parasite drugs, but even the very widely used diabetes drug Metformin has been shown to have significant anti-cancer effects, not to forget Simvastatin.
Many autism pathways/genes play a role in cancer (RAS, PTEN) and the upstream targets considered in cancer research are also autism targets.  For example many human cancers are RAS dependent and in theory could be treated by a RAS inhibitor, but after decades of looking nobody has found one. So instead scientists go upstream to find another target that will indirectly reduce RAS. This led to the development of PAK1 inhibitors that will reduce RAS.
RAS plays a role in some types of intellectual disability and indeed autism. The collective term is RASopathy.  Logically, drugs that modulate RAS to treat cancer might be helpful in modulating RAS for some autism.
Most types of cancers are complex and so there are multiple potential targets to attack them, but also the same target can have multiple possible approaches. RAS dependent cancers can be targeted via Wnt and even Hedgehog signaling.
This may sound all very complicated but does it have any relevance to autism?
It apparently does because almost all these pathways are known to be disturbed hypo/hyper in autism.  This means that clever insights developed for cancer can be repurposed for autism.


Anti-parasite drugs and Cancer
It is indeed remarkable how many anti-parasite drugs have an anticancer effect and indeed there is a much maligned theory to justify this.



Quite possibly it is just a coincidence.
There are many ways to kill parasites, one of which involves starving them of ATP. ATP is the fuel that is produced in your mitochondria.
Cancer cells and many parasites use a very inefficient way to produce ATP that does not require oxygen. In normal human cells the process followed is known as OXPHOS, by which glucose and oxygen from the blood is converted into ATP (energy) is very efficient. Only when you run low on oxygen, like a marathon runner at the end of the race, can you run into trouble because there is not enough oxygen for OXPHOS.  What happens next is anaerobic respiration, when a different process takes over to make ATP. It is much less efficient and causes lactic acidosis which makes marathon runners' muscles hurt.
A cheap anti-parasite drug Pyrvinium targets anaerobic respiration and starves the parasite of ATP and thus kills it. Another common children’s anti-parasite drug albendazole also works by starving the parasite of ATP.
Other anti-parasite drugs work in different ways.
We already know from the autism trials of Suramin, another anti-parasite drug,  that it works via P2X and P2Y purinergic channels.
Ivermectin  binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing increased permeability to chloride ions, resulting in cellular hyper-polarization, followed by paralysis and death.  Fortunately in mammals ivermectin does not cross the BBB.
Ivermectin is also a PAK1 inhibitor and a positive allosteric modulator of P2X7.
Both PAK1 and P2X7 are relevant to many cancers and so not surprisingly research shows that Ivermectin has an anti-cancer effect.
Ivermectin appears to have a positive effect in some autism, but strangely it does not cross the BBB.
Mebendazole is another extremely cheap children’s anti-parasite drug which has remarkable potential anti-cancer properties. It inhibits hedgehog signaling and, via the inhibition of TNIK, it is a Wnt inhibitor.
Unfortunately in the US the private sector has also noticed the anticancer effects of Mebendazole and albendazole and they have recently become astronomically expensive. Mebendazole (MBZ), which costs almost nothing in many countries, now costs hundreds of dollar per dose in the US under the name Emverm. Outside of the US, Mebendazole is OTC in many developed countries. In poor countries it is donated free by big pharma.
In the cancer research they consider taking advantage of the fact that cimetidine (a cheap H2 antihistamine) interacts with Mebendazole to increase its bioavailability. Cimetidine is by chance another generic drug also being considered to be repurposed for cancer.
While some anti-parasite drugs like Suramin have side effects or cannot be taken regularly like Ivermectin, others are seen as safe for continued use even at high doses (e.g. Mebendazole and albendazole).  

Anti-parasite drugs and Autism
Just as many anti-parasite drugs seem to have a positive effect on some cancers it looks likely that the same may be true for autism.  This does not mean that parasites cause either cancer or autism.
We know from Professor Naviaux that some people respond to Suramin.
Two people who comment on this blog have found their child responds to PAK1 inhibitors, one of which is the drug Ivermectin.
There are groups of people on the internet who think parasites cause autism and you will find some of them if you google “autism mebendazole”, but there are some very valid reasons why some people’s autism may respond to mebendazole, but nothing to do with little worms.

Potency of Anticancer drugs
Failed anticancer drugs are already considered as possible drugs to treat neurological conditions.
The same pathways do seem to be involved in some cancer and some neurological conditions, but the severity by which that pathway is affected may be very different, so a new drug may lack potency to treat a type of cancer but be potent enough to benefit others.
In the case of the anti-parasite drugs Ivermectin and indeed mebendazole the dosage being used in current cancer studies are very much higher than normally used.
Very little mebendazole makes its way out of your intestines and so researchers counter this by using a dose 15 times higher and even taking advantage of the interaction with the H2 antagonist cimetidine to boost bioavailability.
The standard human dose of Ivermectin is 3mg, but in the cancer trials (IVINCA trial - IVermectin IN CAncer) in Switzerland and Spain the trial dose is 12, 30 and 60 mg.
So when it comes to autism and the possible repurposing of these drugs, the cancer studies will give valuable safety information, but the likely dose required to fine-tune these signaling pathways will likely be a tiny fraction of the cancer dose.
The newly developed cancer drugs that fail in clinical trials, may have potential in autism but it is unlikely that anyone will develop them, test them and bring them to the market.
The clever thing for autism seems to be to keep an eye on the existing generic drugs considered to benefit the overlapping cancer pathways.

Conclusion
Aberrant Wnt signaling has been identified by researchers as playing a key role in autism; the Simons Foundation is among those now funding further research.

In practical terms you can be either hypo or hyper, but hyper seems more likely. It may be a case of shutting the stable door after the horse has bolted, because the ideal time to modulate Wnt signaling is probably as a baby, or before. Nonetheless some older people may indeed benefit from modulating Wnt; the Simons Foundation must also believe so.
In the case of people with hyperactive Wnt signaling, there is a case to make for the potential use of the cheap anti-parasite drug Mebendazole.
The drug Mebendazole (MBZ) can found in three states/polymorphs called Polymorph A, B or C. This is relevant because they do not cross the blood brain barrier to the same extent.


To treat brain tumors, or indeed potentially some autism, you need MBZ-B or MBZ-C, it looks like MBZ-A does not cross the blood brain barrier.
Fortunately, MBZ-C is  the polymorph found most commonly in generic mebendazole tablets.  
Ivermectin is known not to cross the blood brain barrier but yet has been shown to show anti-tumor activity in brain cancer. The anti-cancer effect is thought to be as a PAK1 inhibitor, but this effect must be occurring outside the brain. Some people do use Ivermectin for autism.
The people using Ivermectin for autism are told they cannot use it continuously. Perhaps as the high dose cancer trials evolve the safety advice may change.





Friday, 19 August 2016

PAK inhibitors and potentially treating some Autism using Grandpa’s Medicine Cabinet





I wrote several posts about why PAK1 inhibitors should be beneficial in some autism and indeed some schizophrenia.

We also saw that PAK1-blocking drugs could be potentially useful for the treatment of neurofibromatosis type 2, in addition to RAS-induced cancers and neurofibromatosis type 1.

One problem with drugs developed for cancer is that, even if they finally get approved, they tend to be ultra-expensive.  Production volumes are low because even if they “work” they do not prolong life for so long and cancer has numerous sub-types.

Cheap drugs are ones used to treat common chronic conditions like high blood pressure, high cholesterol and indeed treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), like benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

A small number of readers of this blog have confirmed the beneficial effect of PAK inhibitors in their specific sub-types of autism.  The problem is that there are no potent PAK1 inhibitors suitable for long term use that are readily available.

The anti-parasite drug Ivermectin is an extremely cheap PAK1 inhibitor, but cannot be used long term, due to its other effects.

Propolis containing CAPE (Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester) is a natural PAK1 inhibitor, but may not be sufficiently potent as is reported by people with neurofibromatosis.

You would think somebody would just synthesize CAPE (Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester) artificially and then higher doses could be achieved.


PAK Inhibitors and Treatment of Prostate Enlargement

I was rather surprised that research has recently been published suggesting that PAK inhibitors could be used to treat the prostate enlargement, common in most older men. 



Abstract

Prostate smooth muscle tone and hyperplastic growth are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Available drugs are characterized by limited efficacy. Patients’ adherence is particularly low to combination therapies of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, which are supposed to target contraction and growth simultaneously. Consequently, molecular etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and new compounds interfering with smooth muscle contraction or growth in the prostate are of high interest. Here, we studied effects of p21-activated kinase (PAK) inhibitors (FRAX486, IPA3) in hyperplastic human prostate tissues, and in stromal cells (WPMY-1). In hyperplastic prostate tissues, PAK1, -2, -4, and -6 may be constitutively expressed in catecholaminergic neurons, while PAK1 was detected in smooth muscle and WPMY-1 cells. Neurogenic contractions of prostate strips by electric field stimulation were significantly inhibited by high concentrations of FRAX486 (30 μM) or IPA3 (300 μM), while noradrenaline- and phenylephrine-induced contractions were not affected. FRAX486 (30 μM) inhibited endothelin-1- and -2-induced contractions. In WPMY-1 cells, FRAX486 or IPA3 (24 h) induced concentration-dependent (1–10 μM) degeneration of actin filaments. This was paralleled by attenuation of proliferation rate, being observed from 1 to 10 μM FRAX486 or IPA3. Cytotoxicity of FRAX486 and IPA3 in WPMY-1 cells was time- and concentration-dependent. Stimulation of WPMY-1 cells with endothelin-1 or dihydrotestosterone, but not noradrenaline induced PAK phosphorylation, indicating PAK activation by endothelin-1. Thus, PAK inhibitors may inhibit neurogenic and endothelin-induced smooth muscle contractions in the hyperplastic human prostate, and growth of stromal cells. Targeting prostate smooth muscle contraction and stromal growth at once by a single compound is principally possible, at least under experimental conditions.


It looks like a PAK inhibitor could potentially solve both the key problems in BPH and so replace the current therapies.



Existing Drugs for LUTS/BPH

Undoubtedly someone is going to wonder whether existing drugs for LUTS/BPH might improve autism.  This is actually possible, but totally unrelated to PAK1 inhibition and RASopathies.

Existing drugs are in two classes, 5α-reductase inhibitors and α1-adrenoceptor antagonists.


α-adrenoceptor antagonists

Alpha blockers relax certain muscles and help small blood vessels remain open. They work by keeping the hormone norepinephrine (noradrenaline) from tightening the muscles in the walls of smaller arteries and veins, which causes the vessels to remain open and relaxed. This improves blood flow and lowers blood pressure.
Because alpha blockers also relax other muscles throughout the body, these medications can help improve urine flow in older men with prostate problems.

Selective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists are often used in BPH because it is the α1-adrenergic receptor that is present in the prostate.

 α 2-adrenergic receptors are present elsewhere in the body

Alpha-2 blockers are used to treat anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They decrease sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system. Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder that is theorized to be related to a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system.

Alpha-2 receptor agonists for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder



So a nonselective alpha blocker, like one given to an older man with high blood pressure and BPH, might well have an effect on some kinds of anxiety.

You would think that a selective alpha 2 blocker might be interesting, how about Idazoxan?

Idazoxan is a drug which is used in research. It acts as both a selective α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, and an antagonist for the imidazoline receptor. Idazoxan has been under investigation as an antidepressant, but it did not reach the market as such. More recently, it is under investigation as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia. Due to its alpha-2 receptor antagonism it is capable of enhancing therapeutic effects of antipsychotics, possibly by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, a brain area thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.


Mirtazapine is a cheap generic drug used at high doses for depression.  It happens to be a selective alpha 2 blocker, but it has numerous other effects as well.  One reader of this blog does respond very well to Mirtazapine.


So realistically in Grandpa’s medicine cabinet there might a selective alpha 1 agonist or a non-selective alpha agonist, it is the latter type that might have an effect on some kinds of autism.


5α-reductase inhibitors

The pharmacology of 5α-reductase inhibition involves the binding of NADPH to the enzyme followed by the substrate. Specific substrates include testosterone, progesterone, androstenedione, epitestosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and deoxycorticosterone.

Beyond being a catalyst in testosterone reduction, 5α-reductase isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (DHDOC).

In vitro and animal models suggest subsequent 3α-reduction of DHT, 5α-DHP and DHDOC lead to neurosteroid metabolites with effect on cerebral function.

These neurosteroids, which include allopregnanolone, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), and 5α-androstanediol, act as potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors, and have anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, prosexual, and anticonvulsant effects.

Inhibition of 5α-reductase results in decreased conversion of testosterone to DHT.

This, in turn, results in slight elevations in testosterone and estradiol levels. 

In BPH, DHT acts as a potent cellular androgen and promotes prostate growth; therefore, it inhibits and alleviates symptoms of BPH. In alopecia, male and female-pattern baldness is an effect of androgenic receptor activation, so reducing levels of DHT also reduces hair loss.

A new look at the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride


Finasteride is the first 5alpha-reductase inhibitor that received clinical approval for the treatment of human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss). These clinical applications are based on the ability of finasteride to inhibit the Type II isoform of the 5alpha-reductase enzyme, which is the predominant form in human prostate and hair follicles, and the concomitant reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In addition to catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the reduction of testosterone, both isoforms of the 5alpha-reductase enzyme are responsible for the reduction of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone to dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (DHDOC), respectively. Recent preclinical data indicate that the subsequent 3alpha-reduction of DHT, DHP and DHDOC produces steroid metabolites with rapid non-genomic effects on brain function and behavior, primarily via an enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory neurotransmission. Consistent with their ability to enhance the action of GABA at GABA(A) receptors, these steroid derivatives (termed neuroactive steroids) possess anticonvulsant, antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in addition to altering aspects of sexual- and alcohol-related behaviors. Thus, finasteride, which inhibits both isoforms of 5alpha-reductase in rodents, has been used as a tool to manipulate neuroactive steroid levels and determine the impact on behavior. Results of some preclinical studies and clinical observations with finasteride are described in this review article. The data suggest that endogenous neuroactive steroid levels may be inversely related to symptoms of premenstrual and postpartum dysphoric disorder, catamenial epilepsy, depression, and alcohol withdrawal.


This would suggest that a 5α-reductase inhibitor, like finasteride, that might be among Grandpa’s tablets might very well have an effect on someone with GABAa dysfunction, this includes very many people with autism, schizophrenia and Down Syndrome.

Whether the effect will be good or bad is hard to say, and may well depend on whether other drugs that target GABA or NMDA receptors are being used. Due to their other effects, 5α-reductase inhibitors are usually only used in adults.

Merck developed a lower dose form of finasteride, called Prospecia to treat baldness, usually in men.  It is 20% the normal potency used for BPH.


Side effects

The current BPH drugs cause side effects in some people.  PAK1 inhibitors may also have some side effects.


Conclusion

Going back in the days of living with your extended family might make treating many people’s autism much simpler.  It looks like many older people’s drugs can be repurposed for some types of autism (ion channel modifying diuretics, calcium channel blockers, statins, even potentially intranasal insulin in some).  Because older people’s drugs are so widely used they are well understood and inexpensive.  

Clearly the research on PAK inhibitors for LUTS/BPH is at an early stage, but there is a huge potential market.   A widely available PAK1 inhibitor might be a big help to some people with autism, neurofibromatosis, other RASopathies, not just Grandpa’s prostate.

In addition to FRAX486 and IPA3, why doesn’t someone try synthetic CAPE, i.e. without the bees, as a PAK inhibitor?

Bioactivity and chemical synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and its derivatives.



There is far more chance of a PAK1 inhibitor coming to market for LUTS/BPH, or certain cancers than for autism.  That is a fact of life.

As for 5α-reductase inhibitors, like finasteride, we know from Hardan’s study on Pregnenolone at Stanford that this hormone can have a positive effect and we know that various natural steroid metabolites will modulate GABA subunits.  So it is quite likely that finasteride is going have a behavioral effect.  Perhaps Hardan would like to trial finasteride 5mg and 1mg (Prospecia) in some adults with autism. I suspect it will make some people “worse” and others somewhat “better”; so please do not report the “average” response, highlight the nature of the positive responders.






Monday, 30 May 2016

Sense, Missense or Nonsense - Interpreting Genetic Research in Autism (TCF4, TSC2 , Shank3 and Wnt)




Some clever autism researchers pin their hopes on genetics, while some equally clever ones are not convinced.

One big problem is that genetic testing is still not very rigorous, it is fine if you know what you are looking for, like a specific single gene defect, but if it is a case of find any possible defect in any of the 700+ autism genes it can be hopeless.

Most of the single gene types of autism can be diagnosed based on known physical differences and then that specific gene can be analyzed to confirm the diagnosis.

Today’s post includes some recent examples from the research, and they highlight what is often lacking - some common sense.

There are numerous known single gene conditions that lead to a cascade of dysfunctions that can result in behaviors people associate with autism.  However in most of these single gene conditions, like Fragile X or Pitt-Hopkins, there is a wide spectrum, from mildly affected to severely affected.

There are various different ways in which a gene can be disturbed and so within a single gene condition there can be a variety of sub-dysfunctions.  A perfect example was recently forwarded to me, a study showing how a partial deletion of the Pitt Hopkins gene (TCF4) produced no physical features of the syndrome, but did unfortunately produce intellectual disability.

The study goes on to suggest that “screening for mutations in TCF4 could be considered in the investigation of NSID (non-syndromic intellectual disability)”

Partial deletion of TCF4 in three generation family with non-syndromic intellectual disability, without features of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome



This all matters because one day when therapies for Pitt Hopkins are available, they would very likely be effective on the cognitive impairment of those with undiagnosed partial-Pitt Hopkins.



Another reader sent me links to the studies showing:-


Rapamycin reverses impaired social interaction in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex.

Reversal of learning deficits in a Tsc2+/- mouse model of tuberous sclerosis.


But isn’t that Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) extremely rare? like Pitt Hopkins.  Is it really relevant?

Tuberous sclerosis (TSC)  is indeed a rare multisystem genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. A combination of symptoms may include seizures, intellectual disability, developmental delay, behavioral problems, skin abnormalities, and lung and kidney disease. TSC is caused by a mutation of either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, 

About 60% of people with TSC have autism (biased to TSC2 mutations) and many have epilepsy.

How rare is TSC?  According to research between seven and 12 cases per 100,000, with more than half of these cases undetected.  

Call it 0.01%, rare indeed.

How rare is partial TSC?  What is partial TSC?  That is just my name for what happens when you have just a minor missense mutation, you have a mutation in TSC2 but have none of the characteristic traits of tuberous sclerosis, except autism.
In a recent study of children with autism 20% has a missense mutation of TSC2. 

Not so rare after all.


Mutations in tuberous sclerosis gene may be rife in autism


Mutations in TSC2, a gene typically associated with a syndrome called tuberous sclerosis, are found in many children with autism, suggests a genetic analysis presented yesterday at the 2016 International Meeting for Autism Research in Baltimore.
The findings support the theory that autism results from multiple ‘hits’ to the genome.
Tuberous sclerosis is characterized by benign tumors and skin growths called macules. Autism symptoms show up in about half of all people with tuberous sclerosis, perhaps due to abnormal wiring of neurons in the brain. Tuberous sclerosis is thought to result from mutations in either of two genes: TSC1 or TSC2.
The new analysis finds that mutations in TSC2 can also be silent, as far as symptoms of the syndrome go: Researchers found the missense mutations in 18 of 87 people with autism, none of whom have any of the characteristic traits of tuberous sclerosis.
“They had no macules, no seizure history,” says senior researcher Louisa Kalsner, assistant professor of pediatrics and neurology at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine in Farmington, who presented the results. “We were surprised.”
The researchers stumbled across the finding while searching for genetic variants that could account for signs of autism in children with no known cause of the condition. They performed genetic testing on blood samples from 87 children with autism.

Combined risk:

To see whether silent TSC2 mutations are equally prevalent in the general population, the researchers scanned data from 53,599 people in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database. They found the mutation in 10 percent of the individuals.
The researchers looked more closely at the children with autism, comparing the 18 children who have the mutation with the 69 who do not.
Children with TSC2 mutations were diagnosed about 10 months earlier than those without a mutation, suggesting the TSC2 mutations increase the severity of autism features. But in her small sample, Kalsner says, the groups show no differences in autism severity or cognitive skills. The researchers also found that 6 of the 18 children with TSC2 mutations are girls, compared with 12 of 69 children who don’t have the mutation.
TSC2 variants may combine with other genetic variants to increase the risk of autism. “We don’t think TSC is the sole cause of autism in these kids, but there’s a significant chance that it increases their risk,” Kalsner says.


"hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a consequence of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1/2 inactivation."

"the combination of rapamycin and resveratrol may be an effective clinical strategy for treatment of diseases with mTORC1 hyperactivation."


So for the 20% of autism with partial TSC, so-called Rapalogs and other mTOR inhibitors could be helpful, but Rapalogs all have side effects.

One interesting option that arose in my earlier post on Type 3 diabetes and intranasal insulin is Metformin. The common drug used for type 2 diabetes.

 








Metformin regulates mTORC1 signaling (but so does insulin).

'Metformin activates AMPK by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which in turn negatively regulates mTORC1 signaling via activation of TSC2 and inhibitory phosphorylation of raptor. In parallel, metformin inhibits mTORC1 signaling by suppressing the activity of the Rag GTPases and upregulating REDD1."

Source:  Rapalogs and mTOR inhibitors as anti-aging therapeutics



Clearly you could also just use intranasal insulin.  It might be less potent but should have less side effects because it acting only within the CNS (Metfornin would be given orally).



The Shank protein and the Wnt protein family

Mutations in a gene called Shank3 occur in about 0.5 percent of people with autism.  
But what about partial Shank3 dysfunction?

Shank proteins also play a role in synapse formation and dendritic spine maturation.

Mutations in this gene are associated with autism spectrum disorder. This gene is often missing in patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome

Researchers at MIT have just shown, for the first time, that loss of Shank3 affects a well-known set of proteins that comprise the Wnt signaling pathway.  Without Shank3, Wnt signaling is impaired and the synapses do not fully mature.


“The finding raises the possibility of treating autism with drugs that promote Wnt signaling, if the same connection is found in humans”

I have news for MIT, people already do use drugs that promote Wnt signaling, FRAX486 and Ivermectin for example.  All without any genetic testing, most likely.


Reactivating Shank3, or just promote Wnt signaling

The study below showed that in mice, aspects of autism were reversible by reactivating the Shank3 gene.  You might expect that in humans with a partial Shank3 dysfunction you might jump forward to the Wnt signaling pathway and intervene there.

Mouse study offers promise of reversing autism symptoms


One reader of this blog finds FRAX486 very helpful and to be without harmful side effects.  FRAX 486 was recently acquired by Roche and is sitting over there on a shelf gathering dust.



Where from here?

I think we should continue to look at the single gene syndromes but realize that very many more people may be partially affected by them.

Today’s genetic testing gives many false negatives, unless people know what they are looking for; so many dysfunctions go unnoticed.

This area of science is far from mature and there may be many things undetected in the 97% of the genome that is usually ignored that affect expression of the 3% that is the exome.

So best not to expect all the answers, just yet, from genetic testing; maybe in another 50 years.

Understanding and treating multiple-hit-autism, which is the majority of all autism, will require more detailed consideration of which signaling pathways have been disturbed by these hits.  There are 700 autism genes but there a far fewer signaling pathways, so it is not a gargantuan task.  For now a few people are figuring this out at home.   Good for them.

I hope someone does trials of metformin and intranasal insulin in autism.  Intranasal insulin looks very interesting and I was surprised to see in those earlier posts is apparently without side effects.

The odd thing is that metformin is indeed being trialed in autism, but not for its effect on autism, but its possible effect in countering the obesity caused by the usual psychiatric drugs widely prescribed in the US to people with autism.

My suggestion would be to ban the use of drugs like Risperdal, Abilify, Seroquel, Zyprexa etc.

Vanderbilt enrolling children with autism in medication-related weight gain study



Here are details of the trial.


Metformin will be dispensed in a liquid suspension of 100 mg/mL. For children 6-9 years of age, metformin will be started at 250 mg at their evening meal for 1 week, followed by the addition of a 250 mg dose at breakfast for 1 week. At the Week 2 visit, if metformin is well-tolerated, the dose will be increased to 500 mg twice daily. For children from 10-17 years of age, metformin will be started at 250 mg at their evening meal for 1 week, followed by the addition of a 250 mg dose at breakfast for 1 week. At the Week 2 visit, if metformin is well-tolerated, the dose will be increased to 500 mg twice daily. At the Week 4 visit, if metformin is well-tolerated, the dose will be increased to 850 mg twice daily.







Monday, 2 March 2015

CAPE-rich Propolis for Autism?

CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) is a substance known to be an inhibitor of PAK1.  PAK1 has been shown at MIT to be implicated in various disorders including Fragile X and schizophrenia.  PAK1 inhibitors are also effective in research models of various cancers, including leukemia.

There are currently no approved PAK1 inhibitor drugs, although several are in development.

PAK1 is also implicated in Neurofibromatosis, and clinicians have researched various alternative PAK1 inhibiting substances.  The two most interesting ones that I have already written posts about are:-

·        Ivermectin, an old anti-parasite drug (also shown effective in leukemia)
·        BIO 30 propolis, rich in CAPE

Ivermectin is already used as an autism treatment by “alternative” doctors who think autism is caused by parasites.  We saw in a recent post that a study looking for parasites in people with autism (in the US) found none.  Ivermectin reportedly does improve autism, according to one reader of this blog and other anecdotal evidence.

I think Ivermectin is likely to be more potent than BIO30, but Ivermectin cannot be safely used continuously, without long breaks.


BIO-30 Trial

Having discussed the idea with one of the Japanese Neurofibromatosis clinicians, it seemed worthwhile to see the effect in our kind of autism.

As you may have seen in previous posts the science behind PAK1 is complex.  It has numerous, mainly bad, effects.  It is involved in dendritic spine morphology; this might be one area where ongoing “damage” is still being done.  So when asked what kind of change I expected/hoped to see, I said “cognitive improvement”.

According to recent research:-

CAPE alone has never been used clinically, due to its poor bioavailability/water-solubility; Bio 30 contains plenty of lipids which solubilize CAPE, and also includes several other anticancer ingredients that seem to act synergistically with CAPE.

Propolis is widely used as a natural remedy, but this was my first experience with it.  The first problem was how to take it; it sticks to everything.

My solution is to cut a small piece of toast and then apply 20 drops of propolis.  Since propolis has a strong flavor, I try to mask it with a layer of Nutella spread on top.

I gave this “honey medicine” at breakfast and in early afternoon.  


Trial Conclusion

There is a cognitive enhancing effect, noticeable not just to me.  The effect is visible almost straight away, but was more noticeable with a dose of 2 x 20 drops than with my original 1 x 20 drops.

At this dosage, it is not revolutionary, but it does indeed provide a real “nootropic”/cognitive enhancing effect.


Propolis for All?

At the dose I am using, I would think this “therapy” is only worthwhile in people whose autism is well-controlled already; meaning no stimming/stereotypy/OCD, allergies/GI problems all resolved, no aggression or anxiety;  these behaviours will mask any benefit.

I actually think this is the first thing I have come across that looks ideally suited for Asperger’s and other HFA.

I did look on line for people trying BIO30 for schizophrenia, all I found was someone else asking the same question:-


Apparently FRAX486 treats schizophrenia in mice due to PAK1 inhibition. Why does no one try Bio 30 Propolis for schizophrenia, as it is a PAK1 inhibitor as well?


Propolis does have numerous other ingredients, including many very interesting flavonoids.

As long as you are not one of the one percent of people with a bee allergy, propolis seems a very safe product.

If you live in Australia or New Zealand you can buy the CAPE-rich propolis locally.  As we learnt in previous posts, only two types of propolis were found to be PAK1 inhibitors, an expensive one from Brazil and the CAPE-rich BIO30 Propolis from New Zealand.

If anyone tries it, please let me know the result.  You only need one bottle and a few days to see if it has an effect.