Showing posts with label NaB. Show all posts
Showing posts with label NaB. Show all posts

Wednesday, 4 October 2017

Sodium Benzoate and GABRA5 - Raising Cognitive Function in Autism

I am still looking for additional cognitive enhancing autism therapies. It seems the best way to find them may actually be to reread my own blog.
A long time ago I suggested that Cinnamon could well be therapeutic in autism, most likely (but not entirely) due to the sodium benzoate (NaB) it produces in your body.

Sodium benzoate (NaB) is both a drug used to reduce ammonia in your blood and a common food additive that acts as a preservative.
NaB has many biological effects.  One effect relates to a protein called DJ-1, which is produced by a Parkinson’s gene (PARK7). I had noticed that when the body tries to turn on its anti-oxidant genes after the switch Nrf2 is activated, the process cannot proceed without enough DJ-1.  This is why Peter Barnes, from my Dean’s list, suggested that patients with COPD might benefit from more DJ-1.  COPD is a kind of severe asthma which occurs with severe oxidative stress, the oxidative stress stops the standard asthma drugs from working, which is why so many people die from COPD. Oxidative stress is a key feature of most autism.
To make more DJ-1 you can use sodium benzoate (NaB) which is produced gradually in the body if you eat cinnamon. So in theory cinnamon is like sustained release NaB, it is also extremely cheap.
Independently of all this NaB has been trialled in schizophrenia and a further larger trial is in progress.  Autism is not schizophrenia, but the hundreds of genes miss-expressed in autism do overlap with the hundreds of genes miss-expressed in schizophrenia, so I call schizophrenia autism’s big brother. 

GABAA α5 subunit
The scientist readers of this blog may recall that there are two sub-units of the GABAA receptor that I am seeking to modify, to improve cognition.  One is the α3 subunit and the other is the α5 subunit. Low dose clonazepam works for α3.
The α5 subunit is the target of a new drug to improve cognition in people with Down Syndrome (DS).
Very recent research links the same sub-unit to autism, so it is not just me looking at this.

Reduced expression of α5GABAA receptors elicits autism-like alterations in EEG patterns and sleep-wake behavior                                                                                                              

As is often the case, it looks like some people might need to “turn up the volume” from α5GABAA receptors and others might need to turn it down.
I had yet to find a practical way to affect α5GABAA. Now I have realized that I have already stumbled upon such a way to do it.
Pahan, a researcher in Chicago, has shown that he can improve cognition in mice using cinnamon. He noted that in poor learners GABRA5 was elevated, but that after one month of cinnamon GABRA5 was normalized. 

Cognitive loss in autism, schizophrenia and Down Syndrome
Most people might associate MR/ID with autism and indeed Down Syndrome; you likely do not really consider people with schizophrenia to have MR/ID. In reality, cognitive loss is a common feature/problem in schizophrenia and indeed bipolar, just not enough to be called MR/ID.
Those researching schizophrenia seem to focus on NMDA receptors, whereas my blog only goes into the great depths of science when it comes to GABAA . To the schizophrenia researchers NaB is interesting because it is a d-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, which means that it will enhance NMDA function.  So if you are one of those people with too little NDMA activity (NMDAR hypofunction) then sodium benzoate should make you feel better.
The schizophrenia researchers think NaB is helpful because of its effect on NMDA, for me it is GABRA5 that is of great interest. The same should be true for parents of kids with Down Syndrome (DS). We have seen that bumetanide should, and indeed does, help DS.  It looks to me that NaB/Cinnamon should further help them and no need to wait for Roche to commercialize their GABRA5 drug. 

NaB and Cinnamon
I am yet to determine how much NaB is produced by say 3g of cinnamon.
The clinical trials of NaB use 1g per day in adults. People using cinnamon, like Dr Pahan, for cognition or just lowing blood pressure and blood sugar use around 3g.
It is quite difficult to give a teaspoonful of cinnamon to a child, whereas NaB dissolves in water and does not taste so bad. 

NaB and Cinnamon Trials
I did trial cinnamon by putting it in in large gelatin capsules and at the time I did think it had an effect, but I doubt I got close to Dr Pahan’s dosage.
A prudent dose of NaB would seem to be 6mg/Kg twice a day. This is similar to what is now being trialed in schizophrenia.
A small number of people do not tolerate NaB and logically also cinnamon.  They are DAAO inhibitors, just like Risperidone. People who are histamine intolerant need to avoid DAAO inhibitors. If you have allergies it does not mean you are histamine intolerant.
I did try NaB on myself and I did not notice any effect.

I had already obtained some NaB to follow up on my earlier trial of cinnamon.  Having read about the effect of NaB on GABRA5 expression, I am even more curious to see if it helps.
Any positive effect might be due to DJ-1 boosting the effect of Nrf-2, it might be boosting NMDA or it might be reducing GABRA5 expression. In some people all three would be useful.

Press release:- 

Pahan a researcher at Rush University and the Jesse Brown VA Medical Center in Chicago, has found that cinnamon turns poor learners into good ones—among mice, that is. He hopes the same will hold true for people.

His group published their latest findings online June 24, 2016, in the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

"The increase in learning in poor-learning mice after cinnamon treatment was significant," says Pahan. "For example, poor-learning mice took about 150 seconds to find the right hole in the Barnes maze test. On the other hand, after one month of cinnamon treatment, poor-learning mice were finding the right hole within 60 seconds."

Pahan's research shows that the effect appears to be due mainly to sodium benzoate—a chemical produced as cinnamon is broken down in the body.

In their study, Pahan's group first tested mice in mazes to separate the good and poor learners. Good learners made fewer wrong turns and took less time to find food. 

In analyzing baseline disparities between the good and poor learners, Pahan's team found differences in two brain proteins. The gap was all but erased when cinnamon was given. 

"Little is known about the changes that occur in the brains of poor learners," says Pahan. "We saw increases in GABRA5 and a decrease in CREB in the hippocampus of poor learners. Interestingly, these particular changes were reversed by one month of cinnamon treatment." 

The researchers also examined brain cells taken from the mice. They found that sodium benzoate enhanced the structural integrity of the cells—namely in the dendrites, the tree-like extensions of neurons that enable them to communicate with other brain cells

As for himself, Pahan isn't waiting for clinical trials. He takes about a teaspoonful—about 3.5 grams—of cinnamon powder mixed with honey as a supplement every night.  
Should the research on cinnamon continue to move forward, he envisions a similar remedy being adopted by struggling students worldwide. 

The paper itself:- 

This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in converting poor learning mice to good learning ones. NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to upregulate plasticity-related molecules, stimulate NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive calcium influx and increase of spine density in cultured hippocampal neurons. NaB induced the activation of CREB in hippocampal neurons via protein kinase A (PKA), which was responsible for the upregulation of plasticity-related molecules. Finally, spatial memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of different plasticity-related molecules were less in the hippocampus of poor learning mice as compared to good learning ones. However, oral treatment of cinnamon and NaB increased spatial memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of plasticity-related molecules in the hippocampus of poor-learning mice and converted poor learners into good learners. These results describe a novel property of cinnamon in switching poor learners to good learners via stimulating hippocampal plasticity. 

We have seen that cinnamon and NaB modify T cells and protect mice from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Cinnamon and NaB also upregulate neuroprotective molecules (Parkin and DJ-1) and protect dopaminergic neurons in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.  Recently, we have seen that cinnamon and NaB attenuate the activation of p21ras, reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species and protect memory and learning in 5XFAD model of AD. Here we delineate that NaB is also capable of improving plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Our conclusion is based on the following: First, NaB upregulated the expression of a number of plasticity-associated molecules (NR2A, GluR1, Arc, and PSD95) in hippocampal neurons. Second, Gabra5 is known to support long-term depression. It is interesting to see that NaB did not stimulate the expression of Gabra5 in hippocampal neurons. Third, NaB increased the number, size and maturation of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons, suggesting a beneficial role of NaB in regulating the synaptic efficacy of neurons. Fourth, we observed that NaB did not alter the calcium dependent excitability of hippocampal neurons, but rather stimulated inbound calcium currents in these neurons through ionotropic glutamate receptor. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that NaB is capable of increasing neuronal plasticity.

These results suggest that NaB and cinnamon should not cause health problems and that these compounds may have prospects in boosting plasticity in poor learners and in dementia patients. In summary, we have demonstrated that cinnamon metabolite NaB upregulates plasticity-associated molecules and calcium influx in cultured hippocampal neurons via activation of CREB. While spatial memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of plasticity-related molecules were less in the hippocampus of poor learning mice as compared to good learning ones, oral administration of cinnamon and NaB increased memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of plasticity-related molecules in vivo in the hippocampus of poor learning mice and improved their memory and learning almost to the level that observed in untreated good learning ones. These results highlight a novel plasticity-boosting property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB and suggest that this widely-used spice and/or NaB may be explored for stimulating synaptic plasticity and performance in poor learners.

The schizophrenia trials:-

Plenty of people with schizophrenia now self-treat with NaB; just look on google.

There is now is a small trial in autism:-

A Pilot Trial of Sodium Benzoate, a D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitor, Added on Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention for Non-Communicative Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Results: We noted improvement of communication in half of the children on benzoate. An activation effect was reported by caregivers in three of the six children, and was corroborated by clinician’s observation. Conclusion: Though the data are too preliminary to draw any definite conclusions about efficacy, they do suggest this therapy to be safe, and worthy of a double-blind placebo-controlled study with more children participated for clarification of its efficacy.