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Showing posts with label NMDAR. Show all posts
Showing posts with label NMDAR. Show all posts

Thursday, 10 May 2018

Accept Autism or Treat It?


Back in the old days autism was a hidden condition and those affected were usually tucked away in institutions. A trend then slowly developed towards inclusion, with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) being passed in 1975 in the US.  Other countries have slowly moved in this direction, with France only this year finally following suit.



Having moved on from hiding autism, we then had the new diagnosis of Asperger’s appearing in the 1990s and so autism became a much broader diagnosis. Then followed the idea of awareness and diagnosing adults.
Now we have an ever-growing number of people diagnosed with this “autism” thing, that other people are supposed to be aware of. Is it a disease, a dysfunction, a disability or just a difference?
Most importantly are you supposed to treat it, or just accept it?
I recently watched a BBC documentary where a doctor was the presenter and she was talking about schizophrenia. She said that at medical school she was taught that there are medical problems and there are mental health problems, for some reason she was taught that mental health problems are not just medical problems of the brain. Somehow mental health problems are supposed to be different and not based in biology, where did that idea come from?
The program went on to show that about 8% of schizophrenia appears to be caused by NMDAR antibodies. This is a condition where antibodies attack NMDA receptors in the brain, this causes hallucinations and other symptoms that a psychiatrist would diagnose as schizophrenia.  Rather than treating lifelong with anti-psychotics, the patient needs immunotherapy and can then resume a normal life.
It looks like 30% of modern autism is associated with cognitive impairment leading to a measured IQ of less than 70. This is intellectual disability (ID) to autism parents and mental retardation (MR) to the rest of the world.
The interesting finding in this blog is that some MR/ID is actually treatable. I did suggest to the Bumetanide researchers that they should include measuring IQ in their clinical trials.
I do not see how anyone could object to treating MR/ID, even those parents with Asperger’s who find the idea of treating their child’s severe autism to be repulsive.

Maths, Autism and Hans Asperger
Some people with Asperger’s are brilliant at maths, and I think these are the ones that Hans Asperger was mostly studying in Vienna in the 1940s. Lorna Wing came along in 1981 and then Uta Frith in 1991 and translated into English one of Asperger’s 300 papers, the 1943/4 “Die Autistischen Psychopathen im Kindesalter” and then named autism with no speech delay as Asperger’s Syndrome.
In 1994 the Americans adopted Asperger’s as a diagnosis and then rejected it two decades later in 2013 (DSM5).
In Asperger’s 1943 paper he described Fritz, Harro, Ernst and Hellmuth, who he termed "autistic psychopaths”; all four had high IQs and Asperger called them "little professors" because they could talk about the area of ​​their special interest in detail and often accumulated amazing knowledge.
I think Asperger’s should have been left as the "Little Professor’s Syndrome" (high IQ only).
In 2018 some people have realized that from the mid 1930’s almost all people in high positions in Austria and Germany were implicated in some pretty evil Nazi programs, including killing mentally disabled children. Asperger, being a senior psychiatrist at the University of Vienna, obviously played a role, not wanting to pay a visit to the local Gestapo basement.  He was living in a police state, where people tend to do what they are told.  Unlike most of the University medical faculty he was not a member of the Nazi party.
The particularly evil Austrian psychiatrist was Dr Emil Gelny, who modified an ECT (Electro Convulsive Therapy) device to give his subjects lethal shocks. Having personally killed hundreds of mental patients, after the end of the war he escaped to Baghdad, continued practising as a doctor and lived till he was 71. He was never brought to account and Mossad clearly never paid a visit, so I guess there were no Jewish victims.  His highly publicized use of ECT is one reason why it is little used today, even though it does seem to help certain otherwise untreatable conditions.
What surprised me was that in 1930 (before the rise of Hitler) half of the doctors in Vienna were Jewish and indeed half of the Vienna medical faculty were Jewish. So not so anti-Semitic in 1930.  All these doctors had to leave and so the young Hans Asperger made rapid career progress.
Things were not all rosy elsewhere.
I recently read that in London in the 1950s Jewish doctors struggled to progress within the faculty of medical schools and so some emigrated to the US.
We should also note that the Nazis took their inspiration for eugenics from America, where it backed by well-known names such as the Carnegie Institution and the Rockefeller Foundation. California, which we now might consider very liberal, was the centre for forced sterilization.  Between 1907 and 1963 over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States.
So, I think Asperger deserves a break, he was likely no better or worse than other Austrians, unlike most he did not join the Nazi Party. Wing and Frith (a German) were naïve to name a psychiatric syndrome based on the work of an Austrian written during the Nazi period. I think you would not name a reservation for native Americans after General George Custer. 

Back to Maths
One group of kids with severe autism do have near/distant relatives who have remarkable maths skills but were never diagnosed with anything other than being a bit odd.
Monty, now aged 14 with ASD, had great difficulty with even the most basic maths until the age of 9, so much so that we did not bother to teach it, we focused on literacy.
Five and a half years of drug treatment has produced a boy who is now great at maths, at least in his class of 12 years olds.
Coordinates, no problem; negative numbers, no problem. It still now shocks those who knew him from before.
Today I received a message from Monty’s assistant at school and a photo of his classwork, where he is solving simple equations like
7x - 6 = 15
That is not a complex problem for a typical boy, but at the age of 9, after 5 years of intensive ABA therapy, we were still challenged by the most basic single digit addition.  


Nice neat handwriting


Should you treat autism? 

Pretty obviously I think autism should be treated. I would favour treating all types of genuine disease.
If you can treat it, I’d definitely call it a disease.
I would treat people with Down Syndrome to raise their IQs to improve their quality of life and I would also treat them preventatively to avoid early onset Alzheimer’s, which they are highly likely to develop. By the age of just 40 years old, studies have shown significant levels of amyloid plaques and tau tangles, which will lead to Alzheimer’s type dementia.
If you cannot treat it, then you’re just going to have to accept it.
But how would you know you cannot treat it, if you do not at least try?
Since there are hundreds of types of autism, there is no one-stop treatment shop for autism. For medical advice you should go to see a doctor, but mainstream medicine believes autism is untreatable. Today it is really up to the parents themselves to figure out what, if anything, to do.  Dr Frye might suggest you try Leucovorin, B12 and NAC; some DAN doctor will tell you it is all about candida; another will treat everyone with cod liver oil; another will blame parasites; most will blame vaccines.  One lady will charge you large amounts of money for her genetic tests, baffle you with complicated looking charts and then sell you her supplements by the bucket-load. This blog suggests numerous therapies may be partially effective in specific people, a case for personalized medicine.  My Polypill is what works for my son's autism; it is nice to know it works for some others, but it does not work for all autism, that would never be possible.  
With schizophrenia, you could start by treating that 8% with NMDAR antibodies via a science-based medical therapy; this has got to be a big step forward over psychiatric drugs.
We have gone from aged 9, struggling with: -
5 + 2 =  ?
To aged 14, solving worded maths questions, where you have to create the formula and to neatly solving simple equations like:

7x – 6  =  15                  
In algebra there is no doubt effective treatment wins over acceptance.

There is more to life than algebra, but it looks pretty clear that going through life with an IQ 30+ points less than your potential is a missed opportunity. 

Trivial autism
Many people with mild autism and an IQ much greater than 70 are happy the way they are and do not want treatment. For them autism is not a disability, it is just a difference, so we might call it trivial autism.  Unless years later they commit suicide or hurt other people, then it was not so trivial after all.
Unfortunately, some people with trivial autism will go on to produce children with not so trivial autism.
Then you end up with situation that the adult can block what is in the child’s interest, just like deaf parents who refuse their deaf child to have cochlear implants to gain some sense of hearing. Cochlear implants are only effective when implanted in very young children, so by the time you are old enough to have you own say in the decision, it is too late.  Some deaf parents do not want hearing children – odd but true.
So, I come back to my earlier point better to treat ID/MR, don’t even call it treating autism.
How can the Asperger’s mother then refuse treatment to her son with autism plus MR/ID? She can still be able to celebrate her difference, while he gets a chance to learn to tie his own shoe laces, put his shirt on the right way around and do all kinds of other useful things.


So, focus on the 31% of autism? 





                     
Unfortunately, in the research trials they often exclude severe autism, so they exclude people with epilepsy, people with MR/ID and people will self-injurious behaviour (SIB). The very people who clearly need treatment are excluded from the trials to determine what are effective autism treatments. Rather odd.




Wednesday, 4 October 2017

Sodium Benzoate and GABRA5 - Raising Cognitive Function in Autism


I am still looking for additional cognitive enhancing autism therapies. It seems the best way to find them may actually be to reread my own blog.
A long time ago I suggested that Cinnamon could well be therapeutic in autism, most likely (but not entirely) due to the sodium benzoate (NaB) it produces in your body.


Sodium benzoate (NaB) is both a drug used to reduce ammonia in your blood and a common food additive that acts as a preservative.
NaB has many biological effects.  One effect relates to a protein called DJ-1, which is produced by a Parkinson’s gene (PARK7). I had noticed that when the body tries to turn on its anti-oxidant genes after the switch Nrf2 is activated, the process cannot proceed without enough DJ-1.  This is why Peter Barnes, from my Dean’s list, suggested that patients with COPD might benefit from more DJ-1.  COPD is a kind of severe asthma which occurs with severe oxidative stress, the oxidative stress stops the standard asthma drugs from working, which is why so many people die from COPD. Oxidative stress is a key feature of most autism.
To make more DJ-1 you can use sodium benzoate (NaB) which is produced gradually in the body if you eat cinnamon. So in theory cinnamon is like sustained release NaB, it is also extremely cheap.
Independently of all this NaB has been trialled in schizophrenia and a further larger trial is in progress.  Autism is not schizophrenia, but the hundreds of genes miss-expressed in autism do overlap with the hundreds of genes miss-expressed in schizophrenia, so I call schizophrenia autism’s big brother. 

GABAA α5 subunit
The scientist readers of this blog may recall that there are two sub-units of the GABAA receptor that I am seeking to modify, to improve cognition.  One is the α3 subunit and the other is the α5 subunit. Low dose clonazepam works for α3.
The α5 subunit is the target of a new drug to improve cognition in people with Down Syndrome (DS).
Very recent research links the same sub-unit to autism, so it is not just me looking at this.

Reduced expression of α5GABAA receptors elicits autism-like alterations in EEG patterns and sleep-wake behavior                                                                                                              

As is often the case, it looks like some people might need to “turn up the volume” from α5GABAA receptors and others might need to turn it down.
I had yet to find a practical way to affect α5GABAA. Now I have realized that I have already stumbled upon such a way to do it.
Pahan, a researcher in Chicago, has shown that he can improve cognition in mice using cinnamon. He noted that in poor learners GABRA5 was elevated, but that after one month of cinnamon GABRA5 was normalized. 

Cognitive loss in autism, schizophrenia and Down Syndrome
Most people might associate MR/ID with autism and indeed Down Syndrome; you likely do not really consider people with schizophrenia to have MR/ID. In reality, cognitive loss is a common feature/problem in schizophrenia and indeed bipolar, just not enough to be called MR/ID.
Those researching schizophrenia seem to focus on NMDA receptors, whereas my blog only goes into the great depths of science when it comes to GABAA . To the schizophrenia researchers NaB is interesting because it is a d-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, which means that it will enhance NMDA function.  So if you are one of those people with too little NDMA activity (NMDAR hypofunction) then sodium benzoate should make you feel better.
The schizophrenia researchers think NaB is helpful because of its effect on NMDA, for me it is GABRA5 that is of great interest. The same should be true for parents of kids with Down Syndrome (DS). We have seen that bumetanide should, and indeed does, help DS.  It looks to me that NaB/Cinnamon should further help them and no need to wait for Roche to commercialize their GABRA5 drug. 

NaB and Cinnamon
I am yet to determine how much NaB is produced by say 3g of cinnamon.
The clinical trials of NaB use 1g per day in adults. People using cinnamon, like Dr Pahan, for cognition or just lowing blood pressure and blood sugar use around 3g.
It is quite difficult to give a teaspoonful of cinnamon to a child, whereas NaB dissolves in water and does not taste so bad. 

NaB and Cinnamon Trials
I did trial cinnamon by putting it in in large gelatin capsules and at the time I did think it had an effect, but I doubt I got close to Dr Pahan’s dosage.
A prudent dose of NaB would seem to be 6mg/Kg twice a day. This is similar to what is now being trialed in schizophrenia.
A small number of people do not tolerate NaB and logically also cinnamon.  They are DAAO inhibitors, just like Risperidone. People who are histamine intolerant need to avoid DAAO inhibitors. If you have allergies it does not mean you are histamine intolerant.
I did try NaB on myself and I did not notice any effect.


Conclusion
I had already obtained some NaB to follow up on my earlier trial of cinnamon.  Having read about the effect of NaB on GABRA5 expression, I am even more curious to see if it helps.
Any positive effect might be due to DJ-1 boosting the effect of Nrf-2, it might be boosting NMDA or it might be reducing GABRA5 expression. In some people all three would be useful.


Press release:- 


Pahan a researcher at Rush University and the Jesse Brown VA Medical Center in Chicago, has found that cinnamon turns poor learners into good ones—among mice, that is. He hopes the same will hold true for people.

His group published their latest findings online June 24, 2016, in the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.

"The increase in learning in poor-learning mice after cinnamon treatment was significant," says Pahan. "For example, poor-learning mice took about 150 seconds to find the right hole in the Barnes maze test. On the other hand, after one month of cinnamon treatment, poor-learning mice were finding the right hole within 60 seconds."

Pahan's research shows that the effect appears to be due mainly to sodium benzoate—a chemical produced as cinnamon is broken down in the body.

In their study, Pahan's group first tested mice in mazes to separate the good and poor learners. Good learners made fewer wrong turns and took less time to find food. 


In analyzing baseline disparities between the good and poor learners, Pahan's team found differences in two brain proteins. The gap was all but erased when cinnamon was given. 


"Little is known about the changes that occur in the brains of poor learners," says Pahan. "We saw increases in GABRA5 and a decrease in CREB in the hippocampus of poor learners. Interestingly, these particular changes were reversed by one month of cinnamon treatment." 


The researchers also examined brain cells taken from the mice. They found that sodium benzoate enhanced the structural integrity of the cells—namely in the dendrites, the tree-like extensions of neurons that enable them to communicate with other brain cells

As for himself, Pahan isn't waiting for clinical trials. He takes about a teaspoonful—about 3.5 grams—of cinnamon powder mixed with honey as a supplement every night.  
Should the research on cinnamon continue to move forward, he envisions a similar remedy being adopted by struggling students worldwide. 


The paper itself:- 


This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in converting poor learning mice to good learning ones. NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to upregulate plasticity-related molecules, stimulate NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive calcium influx and increase of spine density in cultured hippocampal neurons. NaB induced the activation of CREB in hippocampal neurons via protein kinase A (PKA), which was responsible for the upregulation of plasticity-related molecules. Finally, spatial memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of different plasticity-related molecules were less in the hippocampus of poor learning mice as compared to good learning ones. However, oral treatment of cinnamon and NaB increased spatial memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of plasticity-related molecules in the hippocampus of poor-learning mice and converted poor learners into good learners. These results describe a novel property of cinnamon in switching poor learners to good learners via stimulating hippocampal plasticity. 

We have seen that cinnamon and NaB modify T cells and protect mice from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Cinnamon and NaB also upregulate neuroprotective molecules (Parkin and DJ-1) and protect dopaminergic neurons in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.  Recently, we have seen that cinnamon and NaB attenuate the activation of p21ras, reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species and protect memory and learning in 5XFAD model of AD. Here we delineate that NaB is also capable of improving plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Our conclusion is based on the following: First, NaB upregulated the expression of a number of plasticity-associated molecules (NR2A, GluR1, Arc, and PSD95) in hippocampal neurons. Second, Gabra5 is known to support long-term depression. It is interesting to see that NaB did not stimulate the expression of Gabra5 in hippocampal neurons. Third, NaB increased the number, size and maturation of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons, suggesting a beneficial role of NaB in regulating the synaptic efficacy of neurons. Fourth, we observed that NaB did not alter the calcium dependent excitability of hippocampal neurons, but rather stimulated inbound calcium currents in these neurons through ionotropic glutamate receptor. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that NaB is capable of increasing neuronal plasticity.

These results suggest that NaB and cinnamon should not cause health problems and that these compounds may have prospects in boosting plasticity in poor learners and in dementia patients. In summary, we have demonstrated that cinnamon metabolite NaB upregulates plasticity-associated molecules and calcium influx in cultured hippocampal neurons via activation of CREB. While spatial memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of plasticity-related molecules were less in the hippocampus of poor learning mice as compared to good learning ones, oral administration of cinnamon and NaB increased memory consolidation-induced activation of CREB and expression of plasticity-related molecules in vivo in the hippocampus of poor learning mice and improved their memory and learning almost to the level that observed in untreated good learning ones. These results highlight a novel plasticity-boosting property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB and suggest that this widely-used spice and/or NaB may be explored for stimulating synaptic plasticity and performance in poor learners.


The schizophrenia trials:-







Plenty of people with schizophrenia now self-treat with NaB; just look on google.

P.S.
There is now is a small trial in autism:-

A Pilot Trial of Sodium Benzoate, a D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitor, Added on Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention for Non-Communicative Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/a-pilot-trial-of-sodium-benzoate-a-damino-acid-oxidase-inhibitor-added-on-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-intervention-2161-1025-1000192.php?aid=83472&view=mobile


Results: We noted improvement of communication in half of the children on benzoate. An activation effect was reported by caregivers in three of the six children, and was corroborated by clinician’s observation. Conclusion: Though the data are too preliminary to draw any definite conclusions about efficacy, they do suggest this therapy to be safe, and worthy of a double-blind placebo-controlled study with more children participated for clarification of its efficacy.


Wednesday, 26 April 2017

Zinc, Hedgehog Signaling, Shank2/3, NMDA/AMPA Inactivation and Autism


I am gradually tying up the loose ends in this blog. Today several issues are dealt with that are all connected by zinc. Some are extremely complicated and I will skip over the details.



Not that kind of hedgehog


1.     In those rather complicated graphics in the literature that explain signaling pathways, you may have noticed something called hedgehog signaling. This is a basic pathway present in all bilaterians - creatures with a head and tail/feet and a left and right. So flies, yes; but jelly fish, no.  In autism there is excessive hedgehog signaling.  Zinc deficiency is linked to activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway


2.     One of the commonly used models of autism is called Shank3; there is another one called Shank2.  Shank proteins are scaffold proteins that connect neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels to the actin cytoskeleton and G-protein-coupled signaling pathways.  Mutations in these genes are associated with autism. This gets very complicated.

3.     In trying to consider all types of excitatory–imbalance in autism we have yet to look into how low levels of zinc inactivate Shank2 (and so inactivate NMDA receptors) and also inactivate Shank3 reducing synaptic transmission via AMPA receptors as well.

4.     In earlier posts there have been references to zinc in autism and it was suggested that the Zn2+ ions are in the “wrong place”.

5.     In people with autism very often there appears to be high levels of copper, but low levels of zinc.

6.     There is a paradoxical relationship where high levels of zinc supplementation actually causes zinc deficiency in the hippocampus

  
While you might not read much about zinc and autism, it clearly is very relevant but only partially understood. 

Much of the early research regarding zinc and autism has been very simplistic and tells you little. Recently research has been far from trivial and is getting into the details; look for terms such as Shank2, Shank3, and even Shankopathies. 

If someone with autism is deficient in zinc, supplementation may indeed have a positive effect, but high doses of oral zinc will actually cause deficiency in the brain.  

In the brain, zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by glutamatergic neurons and can modulate neuronal excitability. It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and so in learning.   

Zinc can also be a neurotoxin, suggesting zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of zinc homeostasis in the central nervous system that results in excessive synaptic zinc concentrations is believed to induce neurotoxicity through mitochondrial oxidative stress, the dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, glutamate excitotoxicity, and interference with intra-neuronal signal transduction. 



Zinc is the authoritative metal which is present in our body, and reactive zinc metal is crucial for neuronal signaling and is largely distributed within presynaptic vesicles. Zinc also plays an important role in synaptic function. At cellular level, zinc is a modulator of synaptic activity and neuronal plasticity in both development and adulthood. Different importers and transporters are involved in zinc homeostasis. ZnT-3 is a main transporter involved in zinc homeostasis in the brain. It has been found that alterations in brain zinc status have been implicated in a wide range of neurological disorders including impaired brain development and many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, and mood disorders including depression, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion disease. Furthermore, zinc has also been implicated in neuronal damage associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and seizure. Understanding the mechanisms that control brain zinc homeostasis is thus critical to the development of preventive and treatment strategies for these and other neurological disorders. 



For a full list of zinc transporters and disease associations click the link below




Most likely the problem in autism is caused by zinc transporters.  In schizophrenia it is suggested that the zinc transporter ZIP12/ SLC39A12 is over-expressed.





Hedgehog Signaling 

You may wonder what could be the connection between zinc, hedgehogs and autism, but today I am talking about a special kind of hedgehog, the evolutionarily conserved Hedgehog (Hh) pathway; there really is a connection. 

Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH (sonic hedgehog) gene. Sonic hedgehog is one of three proteins in the mammalian signaling pathway family called hedgehog, the others being Desert hedgehog (DHH) and Indian hedgehog (IHH). SHH is the best studied of the hedgehog signaling pathway.  

Both sonic and Indian hedgehog are consistently found elevated in autism. Desert hedgehog gets much less attention, but was found to be reduced in one study from Saudi Arabia, no surprise they choose the desert variant. 

Sonic hedgehog is seen as the most important in development and is heavily implicated in some cancers. It plays a role in how your teeth grow, how your lungs grow, how your hair regenerates and very many other things. 

The next graphic is complicated and most people will skip it.


Pathway Description:


The evolutionarily conserved Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is essential for normal embryonic development and plays critical roles in adult tissue maintenance, renewal and regeneration. Secreted Hh proteins act in a concentration- and time-dependent manner to initiate a series of cellular responses that range from survival and proliferation to cell fate specification and differentiation.

Proper levels of Hh signaling require the regulated production, processing, secretion and trafficking of Hh ligands– in mammals this includes Sonic (Shh), Indian (Ihh) and Desert (Dhh). All Hh ligands are synthesized as precursor proteins that undergo autocatalytic cleavage and concomitant cholesterol modification at the carboxy terminus and palmitoylation at the amino terminus, resulting in a secreted, dually-lipidated protein. Hh ligands are released from the cell surface through the combined actions of Dispatched and Scube2, and subsequently trafficked over multiple cells through interactions with the cell surface proteins LRP2 and the Glypican family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (GPC1-6).

Hh proteins initiate signaling through binding to the canonical receptor Patched (PTCH1) and to the co-receptors GAS1, CDON and BOC. Hh binding to PTCH1 results in derepression of the GPCR-like protein Smoothened (SMO) that results in SMO accumulation in cilia and phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic tail. SMO mediates downstream signal transduction that includes dissociation of GLI proteins (the transcriptional effectors of the Hh pathway) from kinesin-family protein, Kif7, and the key intracellular Hh pathway regulator SUFU.

GLI proteins also traffic through cilia and in the absence of Hh signaling are sequestered by SUFU and Kif7, allowing for GLI phosphorylation by PKA, GSK3β and CK1, and subsequent processing into transcriptional repressors (through cleavage of the carboxy-terminus) or targeting for degradation (mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP). In response to activation of Hh signaling, GLI proteins are differentially phopshorylated and processed into transcriptional activators that induce expression of Hh target genes, many of which are components of the pathway (e.g. PTCH1 and GLI1). Feedback mechanisms include the induction of Hh pathway antagonists (PTCH1, PTCH2 and Hhip1) that interfere with Hh ligand function, and GLI protein degradation mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor protein, SPOP.

In addition to vital roles during normal embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis, aberrant Hh signaling is responsible for the initiation of a growing number of cancers including, classically, basal cell carcinoma, edulloblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma; more recently overactive Hh signaling has been implicated in pancreatic, lung, prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that control Hh pathway activity will inform the development of novel therapeutics to treat a growing number of Hh-driven pathologies. 



Sonic Hedgehog Protein correlates with severity of autism

The research does show that the more severe the autism, the higher is the level of sonic hedgehog protein.    



 



Serum levels of Sonic hedgehog protein in control and autistic children.

Highly statistically significant Sonic hedgehog serum level in mild and severe autism 






Zinc deficiency activates hedgehog signaling 

Background: In many types of cancers zinc deficiency and overproduction of Hedgehog (Hh) ligand co-exist.
Results: Zinc binds to the active site of the Hedgehog-intein (Hint) domain and inhibits Hh ligand production both in vitro and in cell culture.
Conclusion: Zinc influences the Hh autoprocessing.
Significance: This study uncovers a novel mechanistic link between zinc and the Hh signaling pathway.  
DISCUSSIONZinc is an essential trace element, acting as a co-factor for >300 enzymes that regulate a variety of cellular processes and signaling pathways (38). Zinc is also a signaling molecule and can modulate synaptic activity (39). The imbalance of zinc homeostasis has been established in many pathological conditions (1421), including many types of cancer and autism. However, the mechanistic role of zinc deficiency in these diseases remains poorly understood. 
ASD, with an astounding prevalence of 2% (43), is characterized by abnormal social interaction, communication, and stereotyped behaviors in affected children. The etiology of ASD is poorly understood, but both oxidative stress (44) and low zinc status have been reproducibly associated with ASD (16, 45). In astrocyte culture, Hh autoprocessing is promoted by H2O2 and low zinc level (Fig. 2A), offering a plausible mechanistic explanation for the recent observation of increased serum level of sonic Hh ligand in ASD (9). The resulting higher level of secreted Hh ligand may lead to the abnormal activation of Hh signaling pathway in both neurons and glial cells in the developing brain. A clinical feature of ASD, macrocephaly, also implicates Hh activation (4648). Hh plays an important role in the early expansion of the developing brain and in regulating the cerebral cortical size (49, 50). In contrast, the opposite clinical feature, microcephaly, is observed in holoprosencephaly (51), which can be caused by mutations in the Hh autoprocessing domain (HhC) that reduce Hh ligand production (5154). The abnormal activation of Hh pathway, even transiently by fluctuations in zinc level, may cause brain overgrowth, disrupting the proper development of neuronal network for language and social interactions. We, therefore, hypothesize that in ASD low zinc status promotes Hh autoprocessing and the generation of higher level of Hh ligand. Coupled with oxidative and/or genetic defects in other Hh signaling components, low zinc status may lead to abnormal activation of Hh signaling pathway during brain development, contributing to the complex etiology of ASD.

   

Zinc deficiency linked to activation of Hedgehog signaling pathway  



Indian Hedgehog Protein Levels in Autistic Children: Preliminary Results


The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is not well known but recently we reported that the serum levels of sonic hedgehog (SHH) protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) might be linked to oxidative stress in ASD. We hypothesized that Indian hedgehog (IHH) protein which belongs to SHH family may play a pathological role in the ASD. We studied recently diagnosed patients in early stages of ASD (n=54) and age-matched, cognitively normal, individuals (n=25), using serum levels of IHH protein. We found statistically significantly higher-levels of serum IHH protein in ASD subjects (p=0.001) compared to control subjects. Our findings are the first to report a role of IHH in ASD children, suggesting a possible pathological role-played by IHH in early-stage in ASD. Such measures might constitute an early biomarker for ASD and ultimately offer a target for novel biomarker-based therapeutic interventions.

   

Too much zinc causes Hippocampal Zinc Deficiency 

Before you rush to buy some zinc tablets, you should read the next study.  



These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit.

Consistent with previous reports, zinc supplementation in low dosage may increase the anxiety level [19], [32].The previous data regarding the low dose zinc supplementation on learning and memory was conflicting. Flinn JM et al. reported in a series of publications that enhanced zinc (10 ppm) consumption causes memory deficits in rats [19], [32] and potentiates memory impairment in transgenic disease mouse models [33], [34], while others observed improved performance of the animals in spatial memory tasks [35], [36]. In our experiments, we also observed improved performance of mice in contextual discrimination task. The underlying mechanism for the memory improvement by low dose zinc supplement needs further exploration. On the contrary, zinc supplementation in high dose resulted in impaired spatial memory. Interestingly, the memory deficit seemed to be highly hippocampus dependent, since high dose supplementation of zinc only impaired the performance of the mice in context discrimination but not in contextual conditioning 



The possible positive effect of zinc supplementation in Autism  

There was a Phase 1 clinical trial at Penn State (by Jeanette C. Ramer) looking at the level of copper and zinc in autism and then supplementing vitamin C and zinc.  The study was completed a few years ago but it looks like they never published the results.  We have to assume it was inconclusive, but it would nice if they published the results anyway. 

The study below was funded by the Autism Research Institute.  


Aim


To assess plasma zinc and copper concentration in individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autistic disorder, and to analyze the efficacy of zinc therapy on the normalization of zinc and copper levels and symptom severity in these disorders.

Subjects and methods


Plasma from 79 autistic individuals, 52 individuals with PDD-NOS, 21 individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome (all meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria), and 18 age and gender similar neurotypical controls, were tested for plasma zinc and copper using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

Results


Autistic and PDD-NOS individuals had significantly elevated plasma levels of copper. None of the groups (autism, Asperger’s or PDD-NOS) had significantly lower plasma zinc concentrations. Post zinc and B-6 therapy, individuals with autism and PDD-NOS had significantly lower levels of copper, but individuals with Asperger’s did not have significantly lower copper. Individuals with autism, PDD-NOS and Asperger’s all had significantly higher zinc levels. Severity of symptoms decreased in autistic individuals following zinc and B-6 therapy with respect to awareness, receptive language, focus and attention, hyperactivity, tip toeing, eye contact, sound sensitivity, tactile sensitivity and seizures. None of the measured symptoms worsened after therapy. None of the symptoms in the Asperger’s patients improved after therapy.

Discussion


These results suggest an association between copper and zinc plasma levels and individuals with autism, PDD-NOS and Asperger’s Syndrome. The data also indicates that copper levels normalize (decrease to levels of controls) in individuals with autism and PDD-NOS, but not in individuals with Asperger’s. These same Asperger’s patients do not improve with respect to symptoms after therapy, whereas many symptoms improved in the autism group. This may indicate an association between copper levels and symptom severity.  





  

Our study shows that autistic individuals have lower levels of zinc and significantly higher levels of copper when compared to neurotypical controls.
We do not know why copper doesn’t normalize after zinc therapy in Asperger’s patients but suggest that since symptom severity of these patients remains high, high copper levels are most likely associated with symptom severity.
Individuals in this study who presented to the Pfeiffer Treatment Center with depression (or anxiety) were tested for Zn, Cu and anti-oxidant levels. Based on deficiencies, they were then prescribed the appropriate dose of anti-oxidants. Pre-therapy patients represent those who were tested when they first presented and were not previously taking any Zn or anti-oxidants. Post-Therapy patients received anti-oxidant therapy (Vitamin C, E, B-6 as well as Magnesium, and Manganese if warranted), and Zn supplementation (as Zn picolinate), daily, for a minimum of 8 weeks. 


Trans-synaptic zinc mobilization 

I did write a post a while back about some very interesting findings from Taiwan.  


In their research they found that simply repositioning zinc improved social interaction in two models of autism and they proposed a trial in humans with a drug already licensed in Taiwan.  They also had to suggestions for people with autism.   


Hsueh recommends that people with autism who are diagnosed with zinc deficiency caused by the underexpression of the NMDAR receptor to increase their zinc intake by eating food high in zinc, such as oysters. She added that meat, which is rich in protein, helps boost zinc absorption.




In the present study, we demonstrate that trans-synaptic Zn mobilization by clioquinol, a Zn chelator and ionophore (termed CQ hereafter), rescues the social interaction deficits in Shank2_/_ and Tbr1þ/_ mice. CQ mobilizes Zn from enriched presynaptic pools to postsynaptic sites, where it enhances NMDAR function through Src activation. These results indicate that postsynaptic Zn rescues social interaction deficits in distinct mouse models of ASDs, and suggest that reduced NMDAR function is associated with ASDs. 

In the present study, we found that trans-synaptic Zn mobilization improves social interaction in two distinct mouse models of ASD through postsynaptic Src and NMDAR activation. Our study suggests that CQ-dependent mobilization of Zn from pre- to postsynaptic sites—not Zn removal after chelation—might be useful in the treatment of ASDs. This unique transsynaptic Zn mobilization is supported by the following findings: 

(1) CQ failed to enhance NMDAR function in ZnT3_/_ mice, which lack the presynaptic Zn pool; and (2) Ca-EDTA, a membrane-impermeable Zn chelator that should chelate Zn in the synaptic cleft or extracellular sites, blocked CQ-dependent NMDAR activation. 

Finally, our study broadens the therapeutic potential of CQ. CQ has been used as a topical antiseptic or an oral intestinal amoebicide since 1930s, although the latter use has ceased for its controversial association with subacute myelo-optic neuropathy.

Recently, however, CQ-dependent chelation of Zn has been suggested for the treatment of neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease67, Parkinson’s disease68 and Huntington’s’ disease. Moreover, PBT2, a second-generation CQ-related compound under clinical trials, seems to be safe and improve cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. 

Therefore, our study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of repositioning of the FDA-approved antibiotic, CQ, to ASDs based on a novel mechanism distinct from chelation. In addition, CQ-dependent trans-synaptic Zn mobilization might also be useful in other psychiatric disorders that are notable for being caused by a decrease in NMDAR function. 

In conclusion, our study suggests that trans-synaptic Zn mobilization rapidly improves social interaction in two independent mouse models of ASD through Src and NMDAR activation, and a new therapeutic potential of CQ in the treatment of ASDs.
MorM

  

Shank3 and Autism/Schizophrenia

Shank3, which is found at synapses in the brain, is associated with neuro-developmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. 

The exact role of Shank3 is very complex and would take a long time fully understand. It particularly affects all the types of glutamate receptor, so the AMPA, NMDA and mGluRs in the diagram below. Note the green circle with zinc, Zn2+. 

Shank proteins particularly Shank2 and Shank3 are associated with autism and a Shank dysfunction is even called a “Shankopathy”. 





Schematic of the partial Shank protein interactome at the PSD with Shank3 as a model. A more complete list of Shank family interacting proteins is shown in Table 2. Protein domains in Shank family members are similar. Many interacting proteins interact with all three Shank family proteins (Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3) in in vitro assays. The proteins in red font are altered in Shank3 mutant mice. 
  

Here is a science-light article from New Zealand.



Cellular changes in the brain caused by genetic mutations that occur in autism can be reversed by zinc, according to research at the University of Auckland.

Medical scientists at the University’s Department of Physiology have researched aspects of how autism mutations change brain cell function for the past five years.

This latest work - a joint collaborative effort lead by neuroscientist collaborators in Auckland, America and Germany - was published today in the high impact journal, The Journal of Neuroscience.

The study was funded by the Marsden Fund and the Neurological Foundation.

Lead investigator at the University of Auckland, Associate Professor Johanna Montgomery from the University’s Department of Physiology and Centre for Brain Research, says “This most recent work, builds significantly from our earlier work showing that gene changes in autism decrease brain cell communication.”

”We are seeking ways to reverse these cellular deficits caused by autism-associated changes in brain cells," she says. “This study looks at how zinc can alter brain cell communication that is altered at the cellular level and we are now taking that forward to look at the function of zinc at the dietary and behaviour level."

“Autism is associated with genetic changes that result in behavioural changes,” says Dr Montgomery. “It begins within the cells, so what happens at a behavioural level indicates something that has gone wrong at the cellular level in the brain.”

International studies have found that normally there are high levels of zinc in the brain, and brain cells are regulated by zinc, but that zinc deficiency is prevalent in autistic children.

“Research using animal models has shown that when a mother is given a low zinc diet, the offspring will be more likely to display autistic associated behaviours,” she says.

“Our work is showing that even the cells that carry genetic changes associated with autism can respond to zinc.

“Our research has focused on the protein Shank3, which is localized at synapses in the brain and is associated with neuro-developmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia,” she says.

“Human patients with genetic changes in Shank3 show profound communication and behavioural deficits. In this study, we show that Shank3 is a key component of a zinc-sensitive signalling system that regulates how brain cells communicate.”

“Intriguingly, autism-associated changes in the Shank3 gene impair brain cell communication,” says Dr Montgomery. ”These genetic changes in Shank3 do not alter its ability to respond to zinc”.

“As a result, we have shown that zinc can increase brain cell communication that was previously weakened by autism-associated changes in Shank3”.

“Disruption of how zinc is regulated in the body may not only impair how synapses work in the brain, but may lead to cognitive and behavioural abnormalities seen in patients with psychiatric disorders.”

“Together with our results, the data suggests that environmental/dietary factors such as changes in zinc levels could alter this protein’s signalling system and reduce its ability to regulate the nerve cell function in the brain,” she says.

This has applications to both autism and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

Dr Montgomery says the next stage of their research is to investigate the impact of dietary zinc supplements to see what impact it has on autistic behaviours.

“Too much zinc can be toxic, so it is important to determine the optimum level for preventing and treating autism and also whether zinc is beneficial for all or a subset of genetic changes that occur in Autism patients.”


Full paper




Shank3 is a multidomain scaffold protein localized to the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Functional studies in vivo and in vitro support the concept that Shank3 is critical for synaptic plasticity and the trans-synaptic coupling between the reliability of presynaptic neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic responsiveness. However, how Shank3 regulates synaptic strength remains unclear. The C terminus of Shank3 contains a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain that is essential for its postsynaptic localization and also binds zinc, thus raising the possibility that changing zinc levels modulate Shank3 function in dendritic spines. In support of this hypothesis, we find that zinc is a potent regulator of Shank3 activation and dynamics in rat hippocampal neurons. Moreover, we show that zinc modulation of synaptic transmission is Shank3 dependent. Interestingly, an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-associated variant of Shank3

(Shank3R87C) retains its zinc sensitivity and supports zinc-dependent activation of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. However, elevated zinc was unable to rescue defects in trans-synaptic signaling caused by the R87C mutation, implying that trans-synaptic increases in neurotransmitter release are not necessary for the postsynaptic effects of zinc. Together, these data suggest that Shank3 is a key component of a zinc-sensitive signaling system, regulating synaptic strength that may be impaired in ASD. 



Significance Statement 

Shank3 is a postsynaptic protein associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. In this study, we show that Shank3 is a key component of a zinc-sensitive signaling system that regulates excitatory synaptic transmission. 

Intriguingly, an autism-associated mutation in Shank3 partially impairs this signaling system. Therefore, perturbation of zinc homeostasis may impair, not only synaptic functionality and plasticity, but also may lead to cognitive and behavioral abnormalities seen in patients with psychiatric disorders.




Figure 6. Model of zinc-dependent regulation of Shank3 dynamics and activation state. Our data suggest that zinc changes the conformation and association of Shank3 within dendritic spines, resulting in Shank3, which dynamically exchanges between three pools. In pool 1, Shank3 is in an active conformation in the presence of higher zinc (green squares). This conformation assembles into an active signaling complex that includes Homer, AMPARs, and Neuroligin, leading to enhanced synaptic transmission. When zinc levels are low, Shank3 is inactive and resides in two additional pools: one that is rapidly exchanging (red squares) and one that contains oligomerized Shank3 (bound red squares). Oligomerization is potentially mediated by its SAM domain. We propose that, during synaptic transmission, zinc released from vesicles or from intracellular stores could lead to real-time changes in synaptic strength through the recruitment of activated Shank3 into the PSD.





In summary, our studies reveal that Shank3 not only senses changes in postsynaptic zinc, but also is a key component of a zinc sensitive signaling pathway at excitatory synapses. Importantly, zinc homeostasis is disrupted in neuropsychiatric disorders including ASD (Curtis and Patel, 2008; Grabrucker et al., 2011a; Russo and Devito, 2011; Yasuda et al., 2011). Elevation of zinc has been shown to rescue normal social interaction via Src andNMDARactivation in Shank2 and Tbr1 ASD mouse models (Lee et al., 2015), whereas chronic zinc deficiency induces the loss of Shank2/3 and increases the incidence of ASD-related behaviors (Grabrucker et al., 2014). Together with our results, these data suggest that environmental/ dietary factors such as changes in zinc levels could alter the Shank3-signaling system and reduce the optimal performance of Shank3-dependent excitatory synaptic function. Therefore, strategies to activate this zinc-sensitive pathway could potentially restore the functionality of these synapses.

   

Zinc and Dopamine 

I know that some readers of this blog are interested in dopamine.  




Conclusion

It is clear that zinc can play an important role in autism, but the research has a long way to go to really understand all of the issues. 

Impaired zinc homeostasis (equilibrium) is going to cause numerous effects. It will disturb all the glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, mGluRs); in doing so it would disturb the brain’s excitatory-inhibitor balance.  

The research from Taiwan suggests that moving zinc from pre- to post-synaptic sites using an old drug called Clioquinol might be useful in the treatment of some autism. 

Some research suggests that correcting a low level of zinc, found in a blood test, using a supplement may have a beneficial effect. I suspect the impact is either small or highly variable, but simple to check. 

Low levels of zinc seem to be associated by high levels of copper. Supplementing zinc raises the level of zinc and also reduces the level of copper. 

Large amounts of supplemental zinc have a paradoxical effect of reducing the level of zinc in the hippocampus. 

The real issue is perhaps the transport of zinc within the brain, there are many zinc transporters and it is most likely that the problem in autism is caused by zinc transport rather than a lack of dietary zinc. Faulty zinc transporters are associated with numerous diseases, but only recently has autism research started to move from the simple idea of zinc deficiency to consider the role of specific zinc transporters, like ZIP2 and ZIP4.     

Supplementing zinc, along with scores of other things, has long been practiced by alternative therapists in autism. I could not find many reports of significant positive changes.

Hopefully, there will be a human trial of Clioquinol in Taiwan and, if there is, I hope they will check the expression Sonic Hedgehog and Indian Hedgehog.