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Showing posts with label Cetirizine. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cetirizine. Show all posts

Tuesday, 13 June 2017

Eosinophilic Esophagitis – another Granulocyte Disorder Associated with Autism  


There are many comorbidities associated with autism.  I have long held the view that these comorbidities hold the key to understanding each particular case of autism.  In many cases this may be far more useful than genetic testing, which only seems to help in a minority of cases.

“Ringed esophagus” aka “Corrugated esophagus”


This then allows you to put people into sub-groups that may well respond to the same therapy.  This may all sound like common sense, but apparently is not.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new diagnosis and it is applies to a certain type of reflux/GERD/GORD that might be associated with a difficulty in swallowing and may not respond well to the standard stomach acid lowering therapies.

It is likely that most people with Eosinophilic esophagitis have never been correctly diagnosed. Many people have taken several years to get the correct diagnosis.

It is known that Eosinophilic esophagitis is much more common in autism than the general population. One study showed that EoE is four time more likely to be diagnosed in someone with autism. I suspect many people with autism never have their GI problems fully diagnosed.

We now have to add some new science to this blog


Granulocytes

There is a great deal already in this blog about mast cells.  Many readers have children who have allergies, mast cell activation, or even mastocytosis.  Mast cells are the ones (but not the only ones) that release histamine.

Mast cells are just one type of a class of cells called Granulocytes, that are produced in your bone marrow.

Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules, which release their contents when they degranulate.

The four types of granulocytes are:- 


·        mast cells

These have been well covered in the past. These are what cause problems for people with pollen allergy.


·        eosinophils

Eosinophils play a crucial part in the killing of parasites because their granules contain a unique, toxic basic protein and cationic protein. Eosinophils regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cells, dendritic cells, B cells, mast cells, neutrophils, and basophils), they are involved in the destruction of tumor cells, and they promote the repair of damaged tissue. Interleukin-5 interacts with eosinophils and causes them to grow and differentiate; IL-5 is produced by basophils.

Note that some people with autism find that the TSO helminth parasites modify their immune system and improve their autism. This may relate to what is contained in the granules of eosinophils.  


·        basophils 

Basophils are similar to mast cells, in that they contain prestored histamine within their granules. Unlike mast cells they circulate in your blood . Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.5 to 1% of circulating white blood cells. However, they are the largest type of granulocyte. They are responsible for inflammatory reactions during immune response, as well as in the formation of acute and chronic allergic diseases, including anaphylaxis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and hay fever. They can produce histamine and serotonin that induce inflammation, and heparin that prevents blood clotting.

There is research underway to try to develop basophil stabilizers.


·        neutrophils

Neutrophils are normally found in the bloodstream. During the beginning phase of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, environmental exposure, and some cancers, neutrophils are one of the first-responders of inflammatory cells to migrate towards the site of inflammation.

Neutrophils are recruited to the site of injury within minutes following trauma, and are the hallmark of acute inflammation; however, due to some pathogens being indigestible, they can be unable to resolve certain infections without the assistance of other types of immune cells.

Neutrophils also release an assortment of proteins in three types of granules by a process called degranulation. The contents of these granules have antimicrobial properties, and help combat infection.


An obvious question would be, if you know you have a problem with mast cells are you likely to have an issue with the other types of granulocytes?

One role of eosinophils is to regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cells, dendritic cells, B cells, mast cells, neutrophils, and basophils).

The subject is highly complex and again not fully understood, but it is clear that granulocytes are all interrelated and so a problem with one may well be associated with a problem with others.

In the case of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), both eosinophils and mast cell are directly involved.

Basophils, like mast cells, release histamine among other things when they degranulate.

Mast cells usually do not circulate in the blood stream, but instead are located in connective tissue.  Circulating granulocytes, like basophils can be recruited out of the blood into a tissue when needed.

So in addition to mast cell stabilizers perhaps, we might benefit from basophil and eosinophil stabilizers.

Surprisingly, the antihistamine cetirizine has Eosinophil-stabilizing properties, as does the asthma drug Montelukast. Both drugs are widely used in children.

Another substance, curine, also inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and is seen as a potential new treatment for asthma.  Interestingly the drug curine, is an alkaloid, that blocks L-type Ca²⁺ channels.

Regular readers may recall that I proposed the L-type calcium channel blocker Verapamil to control my son’s mast cell degranulation. Mast cells degranulate in a very complex fashion that involves the flow of Ca²⁺.

This may or may not be a coincidence. 

Fullerene nanomaterials are being developed as both mast cell and peripheral blood basophil stabilizers.



L-type calcium channels and GI disorders in Autism

There are many types of GI disorder in autism, however I suggest that a large group can be categorized as being broadly Granulocyte Disorders, which may well all respond to L-type calcium channel blockers, to some extent.

Indeed this may be a better solution than the widely used cromolyn sodium.

Perhaps people with autism, and their family members have certain calcium channels that are either overexpressed, or do not close fast enough, leading to a higher level of intracellular calcium.  This of course ties back in with Professor Gargus and his theories about IP3R and the calcium store inside the endoplasmic reticulum”.

This all gets extremely complex.

My rather simple suggestion would be that if you have autism and any GI problem from the esophagus downwards, a three day trial of verapamil just might change your life.  As is almost always the case, there are some people who do not tolerate verapamil.



Interleukin 5

Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is an inflammatory cytokine produced by type-2 T helper cells  (Th2), mast cells, basophils and eosinophils.

IL-5 interacts with eosinophils and causes them to grow and differentiate.

IL-5 has long been associated with the cause of several allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis and asthma, where a large increase in the number of circulating, airway tissue, and induced sputum eosinophils have been observed.

You might expect high levels of IL-5 in people with Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE)



Anti–IL-5 therapy is associated with marked decreases in peripheral blood and esophageal eosinophilia (including the number of CCR3+ blood cells) in patients with EE and improved clinical outcomes.


Not surprisingly the same anti-IL-5 therapy has been approved to treat severe asthma.


Patients are given mepolizumab by injection every four weeks. It costs £840 per dose.



Mepolizumab for autism?

It is very expensive, so I doubt many people will think of Mepolizumab for autism.  If you have EoE, or severe asthma, you may be able to access this IL-5 therapy, my guess is that it would also reduce the severity of any comorbid autism.


Back to Eosinophilic Esophagitis

I was writing a while ago about food allergy in my book and came across the opinion that food allergy is no more common in autism than in typical people, but what is more common is Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune system disease. It has been identified only in the past two decades, but is now considered a major cause of digestive system (gastrointestinal) illness.  In many cases it likely remains undiagnosed. If it continues, after a few years swallowing becomes difficult, in part because a “ringed esophagus” develops that impedes the passage of food.

As seems to be often the case there are plenty of contradictions in the diagnosis and treatment, as you will find as you read on.

The symptoms are broadly what would normally be diagnosed as reflux/GERD/GORD. This is very often found in people with autism and I expect in their relatives.

It is relevant to autism because it will be yet another comorbidity that when treated should improve autism, but it is also another marker of a particular sub-group of autism.

There are numerous other GI conditions comorbid with autism - colitis, IBD, IBS etc.  In the end I imagine that the molecular basis of some of these diagnoses is actually the same, so you will find the same therapies may be effective.

It looks like that one common factor is the mast cell and, just as in pollen allergy and asthma, stabilizing mast cells yields great benefit. Stabilizing mast cells is complex but involves the flow of calcium ions, Ca2+.  By modifying the flow of Ca2+ you can prevent mast cells degranulating.  This was one of my earlier discoveries, but there is now research showing the L type calcium channels “open” mast cells.  Keeping these channels closed is actually quite simple.

It would seem logical that the same approach could be therapeutic to other conditions that are, at least in part, mediated by mast cells.

According to the Mayo Clinic these are symptoms of eosinophilic-esophagitis


Adults:

·         Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)

·         Food impaction

·         Chest pain that is often centrally located and does not respond to antacids

·         Persistent heartburn

·         Upper abdominal pain

·         No response to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) medication

·         Backflow of undigested food (regurgitation)


Children:

·         Difficulty feeding

·         Vomiting

·         Abdominal pain

·         Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)

·         Food impaction

·         No response to GERD medication

·         Failure to thrive (poor growth, malnutrition and weight loss)


The diagnosis of EoE is typically made on the combination of symptoms and findings of diagnostic testing.


Prior to the development of the EE Diagnostic Panel, EoE could only be diagnosed if gastroesophageal reflux did not respond to a six-week trial of twice-a-day high-dose proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) or if a negative ambulatory pH study ruled out gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Treatment strategies include dietary modification to exclude food allergens, medical therapy, and mechanical dilatation of the esophagus.

The current recommendation for first line treatment is PPI in lieu of diet as a significant portion of EOE cases respond to this, and it is a low risk, low cost treatment.

The second and third line therapies are an elimination diet of either the 6 or 4 most common triggers, or topical corticosteroids, including both fluticasone, and topical viscous budesonide.

Elimination diets would be followed by re-introduction of foods under supervision if the first diet is successful. Allergy evaluation has not been found to be an effective means to determine what foods to eliminate.

  


MAST CELL STABILIZERS

In a small case series, Cromolyn sodium failed to show any clinical or histologic improvement in EoE patients

LEUKOTRIENE INHIBITORS

Montelukast is an eosinophil stabilizing agent. It improved clinical symptoms in EoE but there was no histological improvement

PROGNOSIS

As mentioned earlier, EoE is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus. The inflammation leads to remodeling, fibrosis and stricture. Fortunately, no case of esophageal malignancy has been reported in EoE. Patients are generally diagnosed after several years of their symptoms. Although symptomatic improvement occurs after treatment, recurrence is common after discontinuation of treatment. So maintenance therapy is needed to prevent recurrences. At the present time there is no head to head study to suggest the best maintenance treatment. Continuation of swallowed corticosteroid and/or dietary therapy should be done in all EoE patients particularly in those with history of food impaction, dysphagia, esophageal stricture, and in those with rapid symptomatic and histologic relapse following initial treatment



Eosinophilic esophagitis and Mast Cells

Eosinophilic esophagitis is called Eosinophilic because it is mediated by Eosinophils, however it has been established that mast cells also play a role. 



Whereas prior studies have primarily focused on the role of eosinophils in disease diagnosis and pathogenesis, this study investigates the involvement of mast cells.

Herein we have identified local mastocytosis and mast cell degranulation in the esophagus of EE patients; identified an esophageal mast cell associated transcriptome that is significantly divergent from the eosinophil-associated transcriptome with CPA3 mRNA levels serving as the best mast cell surrogate marker; and provide evidence for the involvement of KIT ligand in the pathogenesis of EE.


One possible explanation for eosinophilic esophagitis:















A potential immunological mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of EoE. An uncontrolled TH2 immune response initiated by an allergic insult results in the transition of the esophagus from a normal (NL) to EoE phenotype through enhanced IL-13 production that induces highly elevated CCL26 (eotaxin-3) expression by esophageal epithelium. Dysregulated TH2 immune response and enhanced CCL26 secretion together promote the infiltration of CD4+TH2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, and potentially, type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and CD4+TH9 cells; into the esophagus. TGF-β and IL-4 produced by the activated mast cells and CD4+TH2 cells may induce eosinophils, ILC2, and/or CD4+TH9 cells to produce IL-9, which in turn, promotes esophageal mastocytosis that contributes to the development of EoE pathophysiology.



Possible Eosinophil stabilizers


CONCLUSIONS Eosinophil-stabilizing properties and favorable safety profile make cetirizine an attractive add-on therapy for NMO. Thus far it has been well-tolerated in our patient population, with incoming data about efficacy expected over the coming months




·        Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum.

·        Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness.

·        Curine mechanisms involve inhibition of Ca2+ influx, and IL-13 and eotaxin secretion.

·        No significant toxicity was observed in mice orally treated with curine for 7 days.

·         Curine has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs.

  

Conclusion

Non conventional therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis might include:-


·        Cetirizine

·        Verapamil

·        Montelukast

·        Curine

The very expensive therapy is Mepolizumab.

If you have one type granulocyte causing a disorder, is seems almost inevitable that the other types of granulocyte are also involved.

Treating granulocyte disorders should improve autism and left untreated they may mask the effect of otherwise useful autism therapies. 

One reader did previously suggest a bone marrow transplant for autism. A rather radical solution, but if someone with autism was given donor bone marrow as part of another therapy, you might well see their autism improve.










Monday, 24 March 2014

Summertime Raging in Autism – H1 Anti-histamine Effect on Histamine Levels and IL-6



Last summer, I wrote a lot about autism getting much worse in that time of the year and how I found that common “24 hour” anti-histamine drugs seemed to have a magical effect; but one that lasted only 2-3 hours. There were only visible signs of a mild allergy, which could indeed easily be overlooked.

I did later receive a message from a reader who noticed his child’s ASD behaviours were greatly improved by Zrtec and his doctor agreed to prescribe this H1 antihistamine all year round.

Recently, I stumbled upon a blog, rich with many comments of parents of kids with severer types of autism.  Here I noted some parents referring to “summertime raging”, and I thought to myself, I know what they mean.  Fortunately, I found out how to make it go away.


Ant-histamine drugs

The two most common antihistamine drugs are Claritin (Loratadine), its active derivative Aerius (Desloratadine) and Zrtec (Ceterizine) and its active derivative Xyzal (levocetirizine).

The main action of an antihistamine is not actually to reduce the amount of histamine in your blood, rather it is to block the effect of histamine on the H1 receptors.

An H2 antihistamine blocks H2 receptors that are mainly in your intestines, and is used to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach.

This led me on a quest for substances that actually stop the increase in histamine, rather than just blocking some effects.  The only thing that does this is something that can stop so-called mast cells from degranulating and spilling their load of histamine, serotonin, nerve growth factor and cytokines, including IL-6, into the blood; from where, all except serotonin, are free to travel to the brain, across the blood brain barrier (BBB).  Serotonin cannot cross the BBB.

According to the mast cell specialist Theoharides, conventional drugs are not genuine mast cell stabilizers.  There are some partial ones, like Ketotifen, Cromalin, Rupatadine and Azelastine, but Theoharides thinks naturally occurring flavonoids like Luteolin and Quercetin work best.

Last summer in this blog I looked at newly discovered histamine receptors types H3 and H4 which are known to be present in the brain.


So how is it that Claritin and Zrtec can reduce autistic behaviours ?

I did note that both the above drugs did reduce summertime raging and also the Theoharides' research that showed they probably should not, since they are not mast cell stabilizers. 

Since my blog reader also found Zrtec helpful, so much so he gives it to his kid year round and it now seems summertime raging is not an unusual phenomenon in autism, I did some more checking.

In spite of what Theoharides tells us, it turns out that both Claritin and Zrtec do indeed reduce the amount of histamine in the blood.

Also, it turns out that not only is the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 released from mast cells but it is also released from another type of cell, called the endothelial cell.

The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. The cells that form the endothelium are called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.

And what prompts endothelial cells to release IL-6? Histamine does.

Indeed we have studies showing how Claritin (loratadine) and  Zrtec (Ceterizine) reduce histamine and IL-6; it is the IL-6 from the endothelial cells.


"CONCLUSION:

These results demonstrate that both L and DCL are active to reduce the histamine-induced activation of EC. Interestingly, DCL seems to be effective at lesser concentrations especially to inhibit cytokine secretion."

The above study would suggest that Aerius (DCL) should be more effective than Claritin (L) its predecessor.



"Histamine is a major constituent of the mast cell. The effect of histamine on endothelial cells is primarily mediated through H1R

Collectively, our results suggest that mast cell-derived histamine and proteases play an important role in vascular inflammation and calcification in addition to their well-recognized participation in allergic diseases."

This study, and others like it, show how mast cell degranulation contributes to heart disease.  This would suggest that mast cell stabilizers have a much wider role in human health than is realized.  Another example of how a red apple a day (with the skin) may indeed help keep the doctor away and a glass of red wine will do the same.  Both are rich sources of the mast stabilizer Quercetin.  The alcohol increases the bio-availability.


"Conclusion

These results suggest that cetirizine exerts its beneficial effects on viral myocarditis by suppressing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, genes related to cardiac remodeling in the hearts of mice."


So how do Claritin and Zrtec reduce summertime/year round raging in autism?  Well it could be histamine or it could be IL-6, we cannot know for sure.  The science tells us that the brain has many H3 and H4 receptors, so they are possibly to be implicated.  Or, it may just be IL-6;  histamine’s involvement could be just provoking the endothelial cells to release more IL-6.


Conclusion

Claritin/Zrtec/Xyzal are relatively cheap, in theory they are long lasting drugs.  In Monty, aged 10 with ASD, they all work for summertime time raging, but not for long.  Adults should take one per 24 hours.  Monty would need one every 3 hours.

The, supposedly better, mast cell stabilizers like Ketotifen and Rupatadine take a few days before they have any effect at all.  Azelastin is available as a nasal spray and is supposed to be effective quickly as an allergy treatment.

My preferred mast cell stabilizing, IL-6 inhibiting, strategy is to combine PEA (palmitoylethanolamide) which is already naturally in your body, with the flavonoid quercetin, which is found in the skin of red apples and red grapes.  In theory, according to the research, this is both a potent combination and should be free of harmful side effects.

Very frequent doses of Claritin/Zrtec/Xyzal are not going to be good.


Links


  

On this blog:-







Saturday, 27 July 2013

More on anti-histamines in Autism and introducing H4

In my previous posts on histamine, you would have read that I found that Claritin appeared to reduce autistic behaviours.  Once I had got to the bottom of what was going on, I found out that histamine has a long record of stimulating challenging behaviour in all children.  It also became clear that typical anti-histamines (H1 antagonists) are all slightly different and one may be effective in one person and ineffective in another.  Each one tends to have additional secondary effects.

It now appears that the secondary effect of certain H1 antagonists may actually be more important than the primary intended effect of reducing itchy eyes and runny noses.
There are three generations of H1 drugs.  The fastest working and most potent is still the first generation, the second generation are non-drowsy derivatives of the first generation.  The third generation are the active metabolite of the second generation.  As you will see in today’s central paper, the third generation probably does not warrant the tittle.  For many users they may be just expensive versions of the second generation drug.

The excellent paper  New anti histamines: a critical view is from Brazil, but it has an English version.  It is highly readable.  It tells of the specific secondary effects of certain second generation  H1 antagonists.   (She omits to mention the secondary effects of the first generation. Some people say Ketotifen is 1st generation and other people say 2nd generation, anyway it appears not to be sold in Brazil).  I suggest you read the paper, if you have a child with an ASD. The key section is this:

Antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects

Originally, studies of the relative potencies of H1 antihistamines were based on the capacity of different compounds to competitively inhibit the H1 receptor binding of histamine, i.e. on their blocking effect on the receptor.8 Nevertheless, it has already been known for some time that, in addition to acting on H1 receptors, many H1 antihistamines, at appropriate doses, are capable of inhibiting not only the release of histamine by mast cells,9,10 but also mast cell activation itself.11 Some of them can even regulate the expression and/or release of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and inflammatory mediators.5,8

Therefore, the antiallergic properties of H1 antihistamines are generally a reflection of their capacity to affect mast cell and basophil activity, inhibiting the release of preformed mediators such as histamine, tryptase, leukotrienes and others.8 Several second-generation H1 antihistamines have demonstrated antiallergic properties, irrespective of their interaction with the H1 receptor.5,8

Chronic allergic inflammation resulting from the late-phase reaction, exhibits components that are similar to other forms of inflammation, including chemotaxis of inflammatory cells followed by activation and proliferation, with subsequent production and release of many chemical mediators. Among cells involved in allergic inflammation are: antigen-presenting cells (for example, macrophages), mast cells, basophils, T lymphocytes, epithelial/endothelial cells and eosinophils - major effectors of chronic inflammation. Cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules also contribute to this process which ultimately leads to dysfunction of the affected organ.8

Many second-generation H1 antihistamines (particularly cetirizine) are capable of inhibiting the influx of eosinophils to the site of allergen challenge in sensitized individuals.5,8 Studies have demonstrated that some of them can also alter adhesion molecules expression on epithelium and eosinophils, and reduce in vitro survival of eosinophils. Finally, some second-generation H1 antihistamines are capable, in vitro and in vivo, of altering the production of inflammatory cytokines (for example, TNF-a, IL-1b and IL-6) and the Th1/Th2 balance regulation cytokines (for example, IL-4 and IL-13).5,8

Therefore, it is well established that, in addition to their effects on H1 receptors, many second-generation H1 antihistamines also manifest antiallergic and anti-inflammatory properties which differ depending upon their molecules and the experiments used for their evaluation.5

 
From my own experience, I have already replaced Claritine (Loratadine) with Cetirizine to see if it will remain active for longer.  Rather than working for 24 hours, Claritine is working for about 5 hours.
I thought Cetirizine might remain active for longer, but the main difference seems to be in how it works, rather than for how long it works.  With Cetirizine autistic behaviour has pretty much returned to where it was at the start of summer, before the allergy season.  With Claritine things improved greatly, but not all the way back to "normal".

Reading the paper and one of its references -
makes me think that the expensive new  version of Cetirizine, called Levocetirizine, might be even better.  It happens to be available locally, but it is seven times as expensive.

The Brazilian paper does rather contradict some of what Dr Theoharides says about stabilizing mast cells.  You can choose who you think has got it right.  The good thing is that both Dr Inês Cristina Camelo-Nunes and Dr Theoharides seem very serious, objective people, which cannot be said about all the people offering their advice on the internet.

In fact, I found an interesting paper on the anti-inflammatory effects of the new version of Claritin, called Aerius/Clarinex (Desloratadine).


It really seems to be the case of trying several antihistamines and selecting the one that works best for you.
 
The H4 Histamine Receptor and Inflammation
You may recall that there is a fourth histamine receptor, naturally called H4.

It was only recently discovered, as you might guess from the short entry in Wikipedia.  It seems that the H4 receptor plays a substantial role in the inflammatory response.  It is seen as playing a key role in conditions ranging from arthritis to asthma.
Here is a full text paper for those interested in the science:-

The role of histamine H4 receptor in immune and inflammatory disorders

 Here is a graphic from that paper:-

I wonder if that H4 is a ticking bomb in autism as well ?

Those more peaceful people among you will be less aware of what C4 is, and hence the sticks of H4 dynamite.