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Thursday, 11 July 2013

Long Term Mood Improvement using NAC in Autism

A more recent post on this subject is here:
http://epiphanyasd.blogspot.com/2014/08/nac-for-long-term-use-in-autism.html




NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine) is an anti-oxidant that is part of the autism therapy I have implemented.  I have now received feedback from other parents who are also surprised by the positive effect it has on their child with autism.  So far, it has had a positive impact in 100% of cases.

In the literature, there are several schools of thought as to why NAC is effective. 
  1. As a free radical scavenger in its own right
  2. As a precursor to Glutathione (GSH)
  3. As a glutamate antagonist
  4. Reducing homocysteine
Glutamate is one of the brain's two most important neurotransmitters, the other being GABA.  Glutamate is excitatory and so too much of it would cause you a problem.  NAC can act as an antagonist to glumate.  This is all very nicely explained by Emily Deans, a psychiatrist in Massachusetts who has a very interesting blog of her own.
In my research into the autism comorbidity asthma, I also came across plenty of talk about oxidative stress and anti-oxidants.  NAC is used, but it seems like they are looking for something stronger.

The main impact is as a precursor to Glutathione (GSH)

I recently learnt that in autism (or at least the one my son is affected by) the reason is without doubt number two.  The other roles (scavenger/antagonist) are irrelevant.

The reason I know this, is that after a few months NAC effectively stopped working.  This coincided with an asthma flare-up.  Now, I initially thought that the asthma attacks had released inflammatory cytokines and that these had stimulated the ever-present neuro-inflammation in the brain.

This is highly plausible and indeed I have literature showing which cytokines are released by asthma attacks.  So I thought that by firmly dealing with the asthma, I would at the same time subdue the autism.  This did not happen.

So after a few days I came up with "plan B", which did prove to be successful.  I hypothesised that the NAC had stopped working because I was not giving enough vitamin B12, which is part of the chemical process in which GSH is synthesised from NAC.  I have no means of knowing how much is needed exactly. In related processes both vitamin B6 and B9 are also involved.

I increased the B vitamins and within hours things began to revert towards the previous behavioural equilibrium.

So it was most likely the failure of NAC to produce GSH, and thus reduce oxidative stress, that had sparked the asthma flare-up. (this is will be covered on my later post of asthma as a comorbidity in autism)

But how much B12 is needed to synthesise GSH?

In your diet you have vitamins B6, B9 and B12, but it is unclear how much is needed to synthesise GSH.  A further complication is that B vitamins are not well absorbed in the gut, and some people absorb them better than others.  Older people are known to absorb B12 poorly.  There are expensive sub lingual B vitamin supplements, but there is no evidence that they actually work better.

There are at least two NAC products targeted at older people to protect them from memory loss and Alzheimer's disease:-


 Both products combine NAC with vitamins B6, B9 and B12,

                                             Over the counter NAC        Cerefolin NAC        Betrinac


N-acetylcysteine (NAC)              600mg                            600mg                     600mg
Vitamin B9 (folate)                                                          1,000 mcg               800 mcg
Vitamin B6                                                                           25mg                       20mg
Vitamin B12                                                                    1,000mcg                1,000mcg



 Both products are for preventing memory loss, rather than just increasing GSH.


For a comprehensive look into B vitamins including their role in the brain, and how they are (or are not) absorbed, take a look at this link from the US Office of Dietary Supplements.


Reducing homocysteine

Homocysteine is linked with strokes, and particularly in the US there are doctors who use NAC for the purpose of lowering homocysteine.

Dr. Baum, medical director of the Mind/Body Medical Institute, a Harvard affiliate, recommends 1,000 micrograms (mcg) of folate, plus 25 milligrams (mg) of vitamin B6, 1,000 mcg of B12, and 1,800 mg of the amino acid N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). "With folate, B6, B12, and NAC supplements, almost everyone will have normal homocysteine levels," says Dr. Baum.

There is even a discussion about the role of homocysteine in autism.  A very recent paper from Poland is: A focus on homocysteine in autism

I think think that high homocysteine, just like low GSH, is a marker of oxidative stress.  In some of the literature it is stated that homocysteine cause oxidative stress.

Here is another paper: Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism






 
And yet another one:-




 

If you read all the papers you will come across various graphics showing biological cycles within the body, like the one below.  This is how I know that the various B vitamins are needed.







Vitamin B12 Therapy

I really just need to know how much B12 is needed and how to give it.  In the end the best resource turned out to be a  bulletin from a US medical insurer, and here it is:-

Clinical Policy Bulletin:  Vitamin B-12 Therapy

The document is very thorough; here are some key parts:-


Background

Vitamin B-12 belongs to the family of cobalamins. It is available in all animal-derived foods, and is absorbed at a rate of 5 mcg per day. After being ingested, vitamin B-12 becomes bound to intrinsic factor, a protein secreted by gastric parietal cells. The vitamin B-12/intrinsic factor complex is absorbed in the terminal ileum by cells with specific receptors for the complex. The absorbed complex is then transported via plasma and stored in the liver. Since the liver stores 2,000 to 5,000 mcg vitamin B-12 (adequate for up to 5 years), dietary deficiency of cobalamin (Cbl) is rare. In most cases, vitamin B-12 deficiency is due to an inability of the intestine to absorb the vitamin, which may result from an autoimmune disease that reduces the production or blocks the action of intrinsic factor, or from other diseases that result in intestinal malabsorption. The most frequent underlying cause of vitamin B-12 deficiency is pernicious anemia, which is associated with decreased production of intrinsic factor.


In a systematic review of randomized trials on vitamin B-6, B-12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function, Balk and colleagues (2007) stated that despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A total of 14 trials met selection criteria; most were of low quality and limited applicability. Approximately 50 different cognitive function tests were assessed. Three trials of vitamin B-6 and 6 of vitamin B-12 found no effect overall in a variety of doses, routes of administration, and populations. One of 3 trials of folic acid found a benefit in cognitive function in people with cognitive impairment and low baseline serum folate levels. Six trials of combinations of the B vitamins all concluded that the interventions had no effect on cognitive function. Among 3 trials, those in the placebo arm had greater improvements in a small number of cognitive tests than participants receiving either folic acid or combination B-vitamin supplements. The evidence was limited by a sparsity of studies, small sample size, heterogeneity in outcomes, and a lack of studies that evaluated symptoms or clinical outcomes. The authors concluded that there is insufficient evidence of an effect of vitamin B-6, B-12, or folic acid supplementation, alone or in combination, on cognitive function testing in people with either normal or impaired cognitive function. This is in agreement with Clarke et al (2007) who stated that randomized trials are needed to ascertain the relevance of vitamin B-12 supplementation for the prevention of dementia.

Vitamin B-12 therapy can be administered orally or by injection. Vitamin B12 tablets of up to 5,000 mcg may be obtained over the counter without a prescription.

In a review on vitamin B-12 deficiency, Oh and Brown (2003) noted that, because most clinicians are generally unaware that oral vitamin B-12 therapy is effective, the traditional treatment for B-12 deficiency has been intramuscular injections. The authors cited evidence that demonstrates, however, that oral vitamin B-12 has been shown to have an efficacy equal to that of injections in the treatment of pernicious anemia and other B-12 deficiency states (Elia, 1998; Lederle, 1998; Kuzminski et al, 1998; Lederle, 1991). The authors explained that, although the majority of dietary vitamin B-12 is absorbed in the terminal ileum through a complex with intrinsic factor, there is mounting evidence that approximately 1 % of a large dose of oral vitamin B-12 is absorbed by simple diffusion which is independent of intrinsic factor or even an intact terminal ileum.
Kuzminzki et al (1998) reported on the outcome of 33 patients with vitamin B-12 deficiency who were randomized to receive oral or parenteral vitamin B-12 therapy. Patients in the parenteral therapy group received 1,000 mcg of vitamin B-12 intramuscularly on days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 30, 60, and 90, while those in the oral treatment group received 2,000 mcg daily for 120 days. At the end of 120 days, patients who received oral therapy had significantly higher serum vitamin B-12 levels and lower methylmalonic acid levels than those in the parenteral therapy group.

 On treating B12 deficiency :-

Although the daily requirement of vitamin B-12 is approximately 2 mcg, the initial oral replacement dosage consists of a single daily dose of 1,000 to 2,000 mcg (Lederle, 1991; Oh and Brown, 2003). This high dose is required because of the variable absorption of oral vitamin B-12 in doses of 500 mcg or less. This regimen has been shown to be safe, cost-effective, and well tolerated by patients.


CONCLUSION


Long term high dose NAC will require careful supplementation with B vitamins.   If NAC is using up vitamin B12 faster than your child is absorbing it from food and supplements, B12 will be used up from the liver and other vitamin stores in the body.  These stores will eventually be depleted and vitamin B12 deficiency will result, if you continue to give NAC.  This is best avoided.

If money is of no concern, best to buy Cerefolin NAC or Betrinac.  If on a budget, then use the cheap NAC available on-line or in your pharmacy; but be careful to supplement far higher amounts of B6, B9 and B12 than the RDA (recommended daily amount).

Cerefolin NAC and  Betrinac have 400 times the RDA of B12, 4 times the RDA of B9 and 15 times of B6.  But each of these tablets only has 600mg of NAC.  In the autism trials the dose of NAC is 4 times higher.

It is evident that B12 is the key vitamin that acts as a precursor with NAC to form GSH (Glutathione), so this is the one to keep a close eye on should your child's NAC appear "to stop working".

It looks like 1,000 mcg of B12, of which 1% may be absorbed, is a fair place to start.  Such supplements are relatively inexpensive, and widely available.



 

40 comments:

  1. Hi Peter, thanks for your informative blog.
    You reference Dr. Deans blog above that nicely describes the NAC/Glutamate pathway. Another blog that describes this pathway can be found here. http://bipolarnews.org/?p=40#more-40


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  2. Thanks for the comment. Anti-oxidants like NAC seem to have very wide ranging potential benefits. In diabetes, they even reduce the amount of insulin the body needs, which I found quite remarkable.

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  3. For us, the NAC "stopped working" for my daughter as well. We have started 1,000 mcg of B12, to go with the 1800/2400 mg of NAC. How much B6 and B9 did you try? Thanks so much!

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  4. For us I did use the high dose B12 and a B vitamin combination made for pregnant women. In the end the solution was to treat what had changed. In our case it was a pollen allergy that gave minor external signs, but clearly in the brain was undoing all the good work of the NAC. I wrote some posts about it and gave a name "seasonal autistic mastocytosis", just Google it. In your case it may be something different. I think that the kind of colitis that is common in autism would produce the same result, it will cause a surge in inflammatory cytokines that will make the NAC irrelevant. There should be symptoms if it is colitis, but many kids with ASD seem unable to tell others. So it is not that NAC stopped working, it is quite possible that something else has started working and is masking the good effect of NAC. Before worrying about all this, it would be wise to try a different brand of NAC, to rule out a bad batch of NAC.

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  5. Just for informative purposes only, but we started the NAC protocol (I do get the BioAdvantex NAC) a couple of months ago. I no longer have bite marks on my arms. I haven't been hit, bit, or kicked (and his teachers at school haven't been, either) Repetitive behaviors...reduced, but not eliminated...He does handstands. It's really kind of funny, but we think he likes the pressure on his shoulders. Also, some vocalization things (kind of a c-note that he hits and holds).

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Great to hear your feedback.

      The effect does increase with the dosage, I expect you know that.

      Delete
  6. Hello,
    I am new to your blog - thank you for the fascinating research! I have two questions: If I choose the Cerefolin route to introduce NAC, can I give 5 tablets per day to achieve the 3g dose you mention or will this result in too much of the accompanying B vitamins? My second question is, have you come across any research relating to the risk of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) with high dose NAC therapy?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I would give pure NAC and then you will know for sure what substance works. If you give a high dose of B vitamins as well, you will not know was it the NAC or the B vitamins that worked. The high quality NAC is available as Fluimucil in Europe and PharmaNAC in the USA.

      Everything has some kind of possible side effect. Cardiologists at Harvard were recommending NAC + B vitamins to reduce homocysteine, to protect the heart. They would be familiar with PAH.

      I always use the smallest dose that is effective. It depends how much oxidative stress is present. Perhaps start with one tablet and gradually increase while observing the effects. Then you can reduce the dose until you notice that you have lost the positive effects. That way you will find the minimum effective dose. This dose should vary with the type of autism and body weight of the individual.

      There are other antioxidants and it would make sense to vary them to avoid any side effects. First you have to find which one(s) are effective.

      Delete
  7. Speaking of vitamins and poly pills, what's your thought on this:
    http://www.autismnrc.org/

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    Replies
    1. If I were to pick a multi-vitamin, it would likely be this one given it is used in ASD studies and was able to restore oxidative stress and methylation markers back to normal, similar to the Jill James study on MB12 and folinic. It also already has lithium, NAC and CoQ10 in low dosages which is not usually present in other brands, so can consolidate 4 different supplements into one. For more sustained clinical effect, need much higher dosages of NAC throughout the day than what is in this multivitamin.

      Delete
    2. It does have a lot of ingredients. Some people seem to benefit from certain things that have no impact on others, so it might make sense to go step by step. NAC at high doses really works wonders. Some people find MSM helpful. Carnitine helps with mitochondrial dysfunction, but you can diagnose this with lab tests. If these pills help, then you have to figure out which ingredients helped. Then you can better understand your type of autism and refine the therapy.

      Delete
  8. I tried NAC for my son's tics mainly (and his Asperger's) but it didn't seem to work, not even at high doses. I want to reduce Risperdal (he's been on it for 3 years) but the tics seem to come back more intense. Any ideas? I thought of Clonotril or Clonidine.I'm not sure about the dosage though. My son weighs about 80kg(he's put on weight with Risperdal). Which would be more effective with tics and anxiety?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I would suggest showing that paper I suggested to your doctor:-

      The Management of Tics
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2701289/

      You may find that withdrawing Risperdal is the trigger for the increase in tics, so perhaps you need to very gradually reduce the dose.


      Here is a link to a step by step guide, from doctors at Harvard:-

      http://www.currentpsychiatry.com/home/article/tics-and-tourettes-disorder-which-therapies-and-when-to-use-them/51230444cb76097942aa3c959ac52ed4.html

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    2. Continue to supplement with NAC 165mg - 420mg and B-Vitamins but include Octanoic Acid 80mg - 200mg.

      Delete
    3. My son had nervous tics and multiple doctors couldn't figure out why. My sons babysitter mentioned magnesium working for another child so I tried it and my sons tics were almost gone the same day and completely dissipated after about 2 weeks. My son isn't autistic but in case the info can help anyone, I thought it'd be good info to share.

      Delete
    4. Thanks, magnesium does indeed to have a very positive effect in some people, and that includes autism. It is easy to try it.

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  9. This is the absolute best N-Acetyl Cysteine you can get.I buy it on Amazon.

    http://www.pharmanac.com/product-info/

    m addition,I also take 6 grams of betaine ever day.

    While fairly rare (?) or rarely diagnosed (?) in autism,I was confirmed to have Severe MTHFR Deficiency and Homocystinuria,from old medical records on my first visit to ACH.I have SNPs on multiple MTHFR genes.My homocysteine and methylmalonic acid were in the 50s,just within diagnostic range.I also have related porphyria.I had varying moderate to severe presentation my whole life before this was discovered.

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    Replies
    1. Roger, just curious - which mthfr snp do you have? and do you use any additional b6 for homocystinuria? Or does the betaine and NAC take care of it for you?

      Delete
  10. I hace vive muy son NAC 900 mg\8 h his steriotip has lowered but not stop.He 60 kg.Can I give him more dosis?Till how much?

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    Replies
    1. Plenty of people are using 2,700 mg per day in people less than 40kg.

      You can give 900 mg three times, or you can even 450 mg six times.

      The half-life of NAC is short and so giving NAC more often may give a better result. You can also buy sustained release NAC,called "NAC SUSTAIN".

      Maybe best idea is give a big 900mg dose when he wakes up and then spread out the other 1800 mg through the day. There is no point giving it at bedtime.

      Delete
  11. Any thoughts on how much NAC might a 2 years old take? Thanks

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    Replies
    1. More relevant is probably weight. I know a boy who needed 1800mg as a four year old to control stimming. Whatever dose you give needs to be split in three or so doses through the day. So you could try 300mg three times a day, for example. It does vary from person to person.

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  12. Thanks peter for your blog. I just bought pharmanac and it was delivered today. My son is 110 pounds. He is autistic and among his obsessions is food and vocal stimming. I was searching for the dosage when I came across your blog. The pharmanac has 900 mg of NAc. Isn't 900 enough for the day.

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    Replies
    1. You will likely need three 900mg tablets a day. You can make it work even better by splitting the tablets in half and dosing more often. You could also use sustained release NAC. So its 2,700mg and after 3 or 4 hours the effect wars off. The cheap NAC capsules also work and are much cheaper.

      Delete
  13. It's very likely that I haven't studied enough yet, so be patient with me... I have a 9 year old with Aspergers and I'd like to help her get control of OCD and impulses, for her safety and future. So now I'm debating two antioxidants: ala and NAC. But wouldn't ALA be safer, albeit slow acting, especially if there might be a Mercury or heavy metal issue in the body/brain? And wouldn't ALA also address the high glutamate levels? And cross the BB barrier? Either way, if Mercury is present and starts getting stirred up, one would need to be prepared to help toxins out of the body so they don't just stir around and create symptoms, right?

    I've heard NAC can be tough on the stomach... And mostly destroyed by stomach acids before very much of it even gets absorbed. Has this come up in your research?

    Still learning here, as much as I can. Any info would be appreciated, thanks!

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  14. Angela, NAC and ALA are very similar, they are both "thiol" antioxidants. Both are used widely as drugs for various conditions. In many countries NAC is prescribed to very young children as a mucolytic agent; its helps dissolve mucus/phlegm. ALA is widely used to help treat problems associated with diabetes. None of these people seem to have any problems with mercury and I guess many have amalgam fillings.

    People with autism have oxidative stress and therefore cannot dispose of metals as quickly as typical people. One role of the body's own antioxidants is to dispose of unwanted substances, that get picked up from the environment. But these antioxidants have been overwhelmed by problems created by the autism.

    NAC and ALA and most other antioxidants will chelate metals. This why people who give high doses of chelating substances to treat their perceived "vaccine injury" will see an improvement in behavior. In trying to remove various metals, they have reduced oxidative stress, which is the real problem.

    NAC has not caused problems either or my sons. If it was destroyed by stomach acids, doctors would not be prescribing it to children with suborn mucus or Grandpa with COPD (severe asthma.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Regarding PharmaNac I was going to order it but read the formulation changed a couple of years ago and that it is now made in India and has Sucralose (Splenda) which is something our family avoids due to the cancer risk. How do you feel about this? I was so excited about Pharmanac and I am now disheartened to hear they have formulated it with Sucralose?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. There are plenty of other producers of NAC, packed in gelatin capsules, which you can open. They do not taste good.

      In most countries effervescent N-Acetylcysteine is a prescription drug called Fluimucil, this is not sold in the US.

      Delete
  16. Did you happen to see the study on NAC done at Indiana University? This study was a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of oral NAC in youth with ASD.
    Conclusions:
    The results of this trial indicate that NAC treatment was well tolerated, had the expected effect of boosting GSH production, but had no significant impact on social impairment in youth with ASD.
    Peter why do you think this is?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. In my son NAC stops stereotypy/stimming almost from the first pill. I am not sure what they mean by social impairment and I have no idea why that was the primary goal of the trial.

      In some people, but not my son, NAC stops self injury. Clearly oxidative stress causes different behaviors in different people, this should not be a surprise.

      I am beginning to think that all substances will be deemed to be failures in trials, because the people running the trials do not understand what autism is, but that would come as news to them.

      Delete
  17. Hi Peter, soon after I got a mild autism diagnosis for my son at 2.8 years which I expected all along I immersed myself in literature promising recovery with simple and safe supplements ...books are devoted to such possible recoveries especially for newly diagnosed high functioning kids..advocated by some much respected medical professionals. I tried gluten free, Caesin free, supplemented with efa, vitMins , minerals and then tried digestive enzymes and probiotics. And would you believe with every new treatment I got clear improvements which stalled or reverted to baseline depending on the feature involved. Then I stopped everything and the pattern repeated itself. So ultimately reducing the quantity of milk which my kid used to drive like crazy and which he started refusing point blank and which gave him deep peaceful sleep, everything else seems to be the placebo effect. He continues to improve in areas where we have not provided any intervention and had he been on somdthing we would have attributed the natural gain as being brought about by the magical supplement. As expected, it's the highest functioning kids who seem to benefit by the treatments which makes me doubtful about the actual role the vit and minerals play viz a viz the spontaneous improvement graph of these kids. Although books like overcoming autism and those by Martha Hebert seem to energize parents into proactive roles and work to improve general health of their kids it seems to me like a huge spurious movement where agendas particularly green activism has got mixed up with autism treatment selling organic soaps to green hirings as a cure for autism.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Hi Peter, soon after I got a mild autism diagnosis for my son at 2.8 years which I expected all along I immersed myself in literature promising recovery with simple and safe supplements ...books are devoted to such possible recoveries especially for newly diagnosed high functioning kids..advocated by some much respected medical professionals. I tried gluten free, Caesin free, supplemented with efa, vitMins , minerals and then tried digestive enzymes and probiotics. And would you believe with every new treatment I got clear improvements which stalled or reverted to baseline depending on the feature involved. Then I stopped everything and the pattern repeated itself. So ultimately reducing the quantity of milk which my kid used to drive like crazy and which he started refusing point blank and which gave him deep peaceful sleep, everything else seems to be the placebo effect. He continues to improve in areas where we have not provided any intervention and had he been on somdthing we would have attributed the natural gain as being brought about by the magical supplement. As expected, it's the highest functioning kids who seem to benefit by the treatments which makes me doubtful about the actual role the vit and minerals play viz a viz the spontaneous improvement graph of these kids. Although books like overcoming autism and those by Martha Hebert seem to energize parents into proactive roles and work to improve general health of their kids it seems to me like a huge spurious movement where agendas particularly green activism has got mixed up with autism treatment selling organic soaps to green hirings as a cure for autism.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Patricia lemnar has brought out an excellent compilation of material regarding everything you can do to recover your child from autism and I highlight the 'everything' for she spreads it vast over a realm of science , pseudo science and voodoo science. For she has devoted huge sections to removing toxic overload from your child's life which she claims will recover him sufficiently if he has been diagnosed in the past one year.
    Leaving your slippers outside, greening your lifestyle, switching to chemical free substances for building , cleaning clothing and the list goes on. Then there is a section on the influence of ancestral traumas and pains and healings. What is the author trying to say..imagine a vulnerable parent diverting his precious resources to something like atonement of ancestral angst.

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  20. Peter--How long does it typically take for the NAC to begin showing positive effects if one is a responder?

    Also, are you aware of any phenotypes that have had a paradoxical (negative) effect from it?

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    Replies
    1. Andrew, you see the effects of NAC during the first day. A small percentage of people do indeed see a negative effect.

      Either they have an allergy to NAC or they do not have oxidative stress and might have the opposite.

      https://epiphanyasd.blogspot.com/2015/09/is-reductive-stress-common-feature-of.html

      Delete
    2. Maybe your readers could "Methylation". Vitamin B6, B12 and Folate make Methyl groups. They are responsible for turning genes "on" and "off" and repair DNA. Implicated in numerous diseases and disorders, including Autism, Schizophrenia, Bipolar depression among others.


      Delete
  21. Hello Peter ..my grandson is 2.6 months and i want to know when can i start NAC for him

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    Replies
    1. If you google "fluimucil 200mg children" you will see that in some countries NAC is given to children younger than your grandson, but for other reasons.

      Delete
  22. Hello, my son has been taking NAC for the past ten days, he takes 2 caps of 375mg each. I was thinking of increasing the dose, but I know he cannot take any vit B12 supps, because when I tried in the past the only result was that he turned absolutely crazy, violent, hyperactive, even in the smallest doses. He is also taking Cytoflora pre-biotics, which are great for him. I had him tested and found that his liver doesn't detox properly, he's full of pesticides and other stuff, which is why he was prescribed NAC in the first place.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Update on last comment: I think I overdosed my son with NAC: he developed a rash on his shoulder, quite itchy, dark rings around his eyes, nose blocked and sore throat. Oh, and hyperactivity and irritability in the morning. He's been taking 1200mg of NAC a day, so I'll stop now and see if the allergic symptoms go away. I read hat NAC can raise histamine levels, is that true? That would explain my son's reaction.

    ReplyDelete

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